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Copenhagen, Denmark

Kongsted H.,Danish Pig Research Center | Kongsted H.,Copenhagen University | Toft N.,Technical University of Denmark | Nielsen J.P.,Copenhagen University
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2014

The epidemiology of New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome (NNPDS) was studied in four selected herds. A total of 941 new born piglets in 86 litters were evaluated for five consecutive days. NNPDS is a newly emerged syndrome, characterized by diarrhoea within the first week of life, which is un-responsive to antibiotics and not associated with known pathogens. The aetiology behind the syndrome is unknown, and specific risk factors predisposing piglets to develop NNPDS also remain to be determined.The study evaluated sow and piglet-level risk factors for developing NNPDS and described the epidemiologic characteristics within four herds previously diagnosed with the syndrome. NNPDS was defined as diarrhoea at any time-point during the second to fifth day of life.Results: NNPDS was observed in a total of 60% (range: 39%-89%) of first parity piglets and 36% (range: 19-65%) of piglets born by mature sows. In total of 26% of piglets had liquid faeces on the day of birth. Approximately half of these piglets developed NNPDS. In the majority of cases (50-70% of cases within herds) symptoms started on the second or third day of life. Piglets in Herd 1 had12.8 times higher probability of developing NNPDS than piglets in Herd 4. First parity piglets had a 4.1 higher probability of developing NNPDS than piglets born by mature sows. Birth weight and faecal consistency on the day of birth were minor risk factors, each significant within one herd.Conclusions: The most important factors associated with NNPDS were herd of origin and sow-parity. The reason for one of the herds experiencing a considerably more severe outbreak than the others was not explained by factors addressed in this study.The epidemiological pattern of diarrhoea varied a lot between herds; however, in all herds first parity piglets seemed predisposed. This association may be explained by an infectious background of the syndrome, but further studies are needed to explain this association. © 2014 Kongsted et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Kongsted H.,Danish Pig Research Center | Kongsted H.,Copenhagen University | Stege H.,Copenhagen University | Toft N.,Technical University of Denmark | Nielsen J.P.,Copenhagen University
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2014

Background: The study evaluated the effect of New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome (NNPDS) on average daily gain (ADG) and mortality and described the clinical manifestations in four herds suffering from the syndrome. NNPDS is a diarrhoeic syndrome affecting piglets within the first week of life, which is not caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) type A/C, Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), rotavirus A, coronavirus, Cystoisospora suis, Strongyloides ransomi, Giardia spp or Cryptosporidium spp.Results: Piglets were estimated to have a negative ADG of 9 and 14 g when diarrhoeic for 1 day and >1 day respectively. However, if only diarrhoeic on the day of birth, no negative effect on ADG was seen. Piglets originating from severely affected litters were estimated to have a reduced ADG of 38 g. The study did not show an overall effect of diarrhoea on mortality, but herd of origin, sow parity, birth weight, and gender were significantly associated with mortality. In one of the herds, approximately 25% of the diarrhoeic piglets vs. 6% of the non-diarrhoeic piglets died, and 74% of necropsied piglets were diagnosed with enteritis. These findings indicate that the high mortality seen in this herd was due to diarrhoea.Conclusions: NNPDS negatively affected ADG in piglets, and even piglets that were diarrhoeic for one day only experienced a reduction in ADG. However, the study showed that diarrhoea restricted to the day of birth did not affect ADG and suggested this phenomenon to be unrelated to the syndrome. Since the diarrhoeal status of the litter had important effects on ADG, future research on NNPDS probably ought to focus on piglets from severely affected litters.The study showed important dissimilarities in the course of diarrhoea between the herds, and one herd was considerably more affected than the others. Within this herd, NNPDS seemed to be associated with a higher mortality, whereas in general the study did not show lethal effects of NNPDS. © 2014 Kongsted et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Petersen S.O.,University of Aarhus | Hutchings N.J.,University of Aarhus | Hafner S.D.,University of Southern Denmark | Sommer S.G.,University of Southern Denmark | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in-house storage can reduce NH3 emissions, and also may influence other emissions. In this study, emissions of NH3 were quantified by measuring continuously during three complete finishing pig production periods of about 10 weeks each, and emissions of CH4 and H2S less frequently. Emissions were determined from sections with 30-32 pigs with or without daily adjustment of slurry pH to below 6. Ammonia losses from reference sections with untreated slurry were between 9.5 and 12.4% of N excreted, and from sections with acidified slurry between 3.1 and 6.2%. Acidification reduced total emissions of NH3 by 66 and 71% in spring and autumn experiments, and by 44% in the summer experiment. Regression models were used to investigate sources and controls of NH3 emissions. There was a strong relationship between NH3 emissions and ventilation rate during spring and autumn, but less so during summer where ventilation rates were generally high. It was concluded that the contribution from floors to NH3 emissions was <50%. There was some evidence for reduced CH4 emissions from acidified slurry, but CH4 emissions were generally low and apparently dominated by enteric fermentation. No effect on N2O emissions was observed. The effect of acidification on emissions of H2S differed between experiments. Implications of slurry acidification for subsequent field application, including N and S availability, and soil pH, are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Andreasen R.R.,Danish Pig Research Center | Riis A.L.,Hinge | Mortensen K.,Hinge
International Agricultural Engineering Journal | Year: 2015

In this study, we tested the performance and perspectives of four full-scale biotrickling filters based on Leca® (Light Expanded Clay Aggregates), a mechanically stable, non-degradable filter media, known to absorb odorous compounds such as H2S and methanethiol. The four filters varied in: filter thickness, carrying media, and the presence of dust filters. Biological Leca® filters, operated with EBRT between 1.7-8.9 s, were found to be capable of reducing NH3, H2S and odour, from a pig house, by up to 96%, 81% and 80%, respectively. Clogging was observed to occur after approximately 100 days, however the installation of a dust filter was observed to minimize this problem. Source

Anthony Knudsen T.,Vets Now | Dahl S.,Danish Pig Research Center
Journal of Small Animal Practice | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91·7%, and 21·3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P<0·001) risk of pulp exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4·3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12·2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n=51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82·4%, but only 0·8% in dogs without pulp exposure (n=133) resulting in a significant (relative risk, 109·5; P<0·001) risk of periapical pathology in teeth with pulp exposure compared to teeth without pulp exposure. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The high risk of periapical pathology observed in teeth with pulp exposure confirms that these teeth should not be neglected in affected dogs. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association. Source

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