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Copenhagen, Denmark

Jorgensen H.,University of Aarhus | Sholly D.,Purdue University | Pedersen A.O.,Danish Pig Production | Canibe N.,University of Aarhus | Knudsen K.E.B.,University of Aarhus
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

A study was carried out to determine the impact of fermentation of two cereals, barley and wheat, on chemical composition and nutrient digestibility in the small intestine and the total tract of growing pigs. Fermented liquid cereals were prepared by mixing either barley or wheat and water (25°C) at a ratio of 1:2.75 (wt/wt). Four experimental diets consisting of either dry or fermented barley or wheat, supplemented with a protein mixture (not fermented) were formulated to contain recommended levels of nutrients. Eight pigs from two litters were surgically fitted with a T-cannula anterior to the ileo-cecal junction and fed one of the four experimental diets according to a repeated 4 × 4 Latin-square design. The fermentation process was followed by measuring the changes in the major nutrients, microbial composition and organic acid concentrations. Fermentation caused a reduced concentration of carbohydrates and an increased concentration of Klason lignin; the latter indicates that some dry matter was lost during fermentation. Fermentation improved the ileal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and energy of barley by 6% and of wheat by 3%. The higher content of potentially fermentable components in barley was the most probable explanation for the results obtained. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hansen M.H.H.,University of Aarhus | Young S.,University of Washington | Jorgensen H.B.H.,University of Aarhus | Pascal C.,University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2011

We establish a TaqMan-based assay panel for genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms in rainbow trout and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We develop 22 novel single-nucleotide polymorphism markers based on new steelhead sequence data and on assays from sister taxa. Additionally, we adapt 154 previously developed markers to the TaqMan platform. At the beginning of this study, 59 SNPs with TaqMan assays were available to the scientific community. By adding 176 additional TaqMan assays to this number, we greatly expand the biological applications of TaqMan genotyping within both population genetics and quantitative genetics. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Canibe N.,University of Aarhus | Pedersen A.O.,Danish Pig Production | Jensen B.B.,University of Aarhus | Jespersen L.,Copenhagen University
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

When feed and a liquid are mixed fermentation will spontaneously start. The microbial species dominating in the fermented mixture may vary depending on the environment and/or the ingredients being fermented. However, there is scarce knowledge on this subject. A study was carried out to investigate the biochemical and microbial variations in fermented liquid feed (FLF) samples obtained from 40 Danish farms, which could help in elucidating the reason for the variable results obtained when feeding pigs with FLF. The farms were classified into two groups, a 'High feed intake' group and a 'Low feed intake' group. The biochemical characteristics and the microbiological composition to group level were determined. Furthermore, characterization of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to species level was carried out. The biochemical characteristics and the composition of microbial groups of the two farm groups were similar. The data on lactic acid bacteria and yeasts diversity showed that a few phylotypes of lactic acid bacteria (four phylotypes made up 74-79% of the total isolates), and yeasts (four species made up 85-91% of the total isolates), dominated in all samples. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bjerre D.,Copenhagen University | Mark T.,Copenhagen University | Sorensen P.,Research Center Foulum | Proschowsky H.F.,Copenhagen University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

Selection for increased litter size has been one of the main objectives in Danish pig breeding since 1992. This selection has led to an average increase of 0.30 piglets/litter per year for Landrace and York-shire sows, resulting in an average litter size of 15.3 piglets born alive in 2007, with an SD of 3.5 piglets. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in identity by state relationships and allele effects associated with litter size across 17 selected microsatellite marker positions on chromosomes 11, 13, and 15. For this purpose, 357 Danish Landrace sows with high and low EBV for litter size were genotyped. An assignment test showed that 91 and 90% of the sows could be assigned correctly to the group of sows representing high and low EBV, respectively, based on genotype information. Allele effects were estimated separately for each marker by using deregressed EBV and a linear model that include both a polygenic and an allele effect. The investigated region on chromosome 13 was found to have a greater average identity by state relationship compared with the other regions, indicating that selection has taken place in this region. This is supported by an increased average allele effect of microsatellite alleles in the region. In spite of the apparent increased historical selection pressure on chromosome 13, fairly large variation in allele effects was observed, indicating that the markers within the region may be used for marker-assisted selection. However, substantial variation in allele effects was observed for several markers on all 3 investigated chromosomes, indicating that selection should preferably be based on several markers. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science. Source

Norrby M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Madsen M.T.,Danish Pig Production | Saravia F.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Saravia F.,University of Concepcion | And 2 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2011

Soya products containing phytooestrogens are widely used as feed for pigs. However, limited data are available on the effects of phytooestrogen on the endocrine status of pigs. The aim of this work was to study the impact of the phytooestrogen genistein added to a soya-free diet on the hormonal pattern in gilts during oestrus and artificial insemination (AI). Ten gilts were fed a soya-free diet and fitted with jugular vein catheter through vena auricularis. The gilts were randomly divided into two groups (G- and C-group) where the G-group was given pure genistein, 1mg/kg body weight (BW) twice daily, per os. Blood samples were collected before, during and after AI. Oxytocin, prostaglandin E 2, prostaglandin F 2α, 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F 2α (PGFM), cortisol and LH concentrations in blood plasma were analysed. Oxytocin concentrations were almost twice as high in the G-group as in C-group after the AI. Prostaglandin E 2 concentrations were higher in G-group than in C-group during the entire sampling period. After AI, the concentrations of prostaglandin E 2 increased in G-group but not in C-group. Prostaglandin F 2α concentration had a pulsatile pattern, with increasing pulses after AI in G-group. Plasma PGFM concentrations increased after AI with a small variation between the groups. Plasma cortisol concentration increased after AI in C-group. LH decreased after AI in G-group. Genistein stimulated elevations of plasma oxytocin and prostaglandin E 2 concentrations and a pulsative pattern in prostaglandin F 2α concentration. The possible involvement of genistein in plasma cortisol and basal LH concentrations in gilts given genistein may also be suggested. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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