Danish Pig Production

Copenhagen, Denmark

Danish Pig Production

Copenhagen, Denmark
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Hansen M.S.,Copenhagen University | Hansen M.S.,Technical University of Denmark | Hjulsager C.K.,Technical University of Denmark | Bille-Hansen V.,Technical University of Denmark | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2010

During a 2-month period a newly repopulated Danish pig herd experienced an increase in numbers of stillborn and mummies, caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) associated reproductive failure. Based on recordings of data over time, the progression of the clinical outbreak was studied and the diagnostic value of different techniques was evaluated. Foetal hearts (38 cases and 13 controls) were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of PCV2; and total immunoglobulin G (IgG) was measured in pleura cavity fluid. PCV2 IHC was positive in 14/38 of the case foetuses, which were delivered during a 9 days period early in the outbreak. On the basis of the results obtained by IHC and PCR, the foetuses were divided into 3 categories: PCV2 negative; moderately positive (104 to 107 copies per 500ng DNA); and massively positive for PCV2 (>107 copies per 500ng DNA). All control- and IHC positive foetuses were included in the negative and massively positive groups, respectively. Ten case foetuses had elevated IgG levels, which did not correlate with the IHC or PCR results. Based on the clustering of the IHC positive foetuses, it is suggested that IHC only is suited for diagnosing acute stages of reproductive failure, whereas quantitative PCR can be used as a sensitive diagnostic method within a wider time span. It seems that IgG measurements are unpredictable as indication of intrauterine infection with PCV2. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Hansen M.H.H.,University of Aarhus | Young S.,University of Washington | Jorgensen H.B.H.,University of Aarhus | Pascal C.,University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2011

We establish a TaqMan-based assay panel for genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms in rainbow trout and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We develop 22 novel single-nucleotide polymorphism markers based on new steelhead sequence data and on assays from sister taxa. Additionally, we adapt 154 previously developed markers to the TaqMan platform. At the beginning of this study, 59 SNPs with TaqMan assays were available to the scientific community. By adding 176 additional TaqMan assays to this number, we greatly expand the biological applications of TaqMan genotyping within both population genetics and quantitative genetics. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Canibe N.,University of Aarhus | Pedersen A.O.,Danish Pig Production | Jensen B.B.,University of Aarhus | Jespersen L.,Copenhagen University
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

When feed and a liquid are mixed fermentation will spontaneously start. The microbial species dominating in the fermented mixture may vary depending on the environment and/or the ingredients being fermented. However, there is scarce knowledge on this subject. A study was carried out to investigate the biochemical and microbial variations in fermented liquid feed (FLF) samples obtained from 40 Danish farms, which could help in elucidating the reason for the variable results obtained when feeding pigs with FLF. The farms were classified into two groups, a 'High feed intake' group and a 'Low feed intake' group. The biochemical characteristics and the microbiological composition to group level were determined. Furthermore, characterization of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to species level was carried out. The biochemical characteristics and the composition of microbial groups of the two farm groups were similar. The data on lactic acid bacteria and yeasts diversity showed that a few phylotypes of lactic acid bacteria (four phylotypes made up 74-79% of the total isolates), and yeasts (four species made up 85-91% of the total isolates), dominated in all samples. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Jorgensen H.,University of Aarhus | Sholly D.,Purdue University | Pedersen A.O.,Danish Pig Production | Canibe N.,University of Aarhus | Knudsen K.E.B.,University of Aarhus
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

A study was carried out to determine the impact of fermentation of two cereals, barley and wheat, on chemical composition and nutrient digestibility in the small intestine and the total tract of growing pigs. Fermented liquid cereals were prepared by mixing either barley or wheat and water (25°C) at a ratio of 1:2.75 (wt/wt). Four experimental diets consisting of either dry or fermented barley or wheat, supplemented with a protein mixture (not fermented) were formulated to contain recommended levels of nutrients. Eight pigs from two litters were surgically fitted with a T-cannula anterior to the ileo-cecal junction and fed one of the four experimental diets according to a repeated 4 × 4 Latin-square design. The fermentation process was followed by measuring the changes in the major nutrients, microbial composition and organic acid concentrations. Fermentation caused a reduced concentration of carbohydrates and an increased concentration of Klason lignin; the latter indicates that some dry matter was lost during fermentation. Fermentation improved the ileal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and energy of barley by 6% and of wheat by 3%. The higher content of potentially fermentable components in barley was the most probable explanation for the results obtained. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Bjerre D.,Copenhagen University | Mark T.,Copenhagen University | Sorensen P.,Research Center Foulum | Proschowsky H.F.,Copenhagen University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

Selection for increased litter size has been one of the main objectives in Danish pig breeding since 1992. This selection has led to an average increase of 0.30 piglets/litter per year for Landrace and York-shire sows, resulting in an average litter size of 15.3 piglets born alive in 2007, with an SD of 3.5 piglets. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in identity by state relationships and allele effects associated with litter size across 17 selected microsatellite marker positions on chromosomes 11, 13, and 15. For this purpose, 357 Danish Landrace sows with high and low EBV for litter size were genotyped. An assignment test showed that 91 and 90% of the sows could be assigned correctly to the group of sows representing high and low EBV, respectively, based on genotype information. Allele effects were estimated separately for each marker by using deregressed EBV and a linear model that include both a polygenic and an allele effect. The investigated region on chromosome 13 was found to have a greater average identity by state relationship compared with the other regions, indicating that selection has taken place in this region. This is supported by an increased average allele effect of microsatellite alleles in the region. In spite of the apparent increased historical selection pressure on chromosome 13, fairly large variation in allele effects was observed, indicating that the markers within the region may be used for marker-assisted selection. However, substantial variation in allele effects was observed for several markers on all 3 investigated chromosomes, indicating that selection should preferably be based on several markers. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.

Maia R.P.,University of Aarhus | Ask B.,Danish Pig Production | Madsen P.,University of Aarhus | Pedersen J.,Knowledge Center for Agriculture | Labouriau R.,University of Aarhus
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

Dairy cow mortality has been steadily increasing during the last 2 decades in Denmark. This study aims to verify whether genetic mechanisms might be contributing to this increase. To do so, the records of 880,480 Holstein, 142,306 Jersey, and 85,206 Red Danish dairy cows calving from 1990 to 2006 were retrieved from the Danish Cattle register. Two causes of culling of cows were considered: death and slaughtering. Bivariate competing risk genetic models with a sire model structure were used to describe the death and the slaughtering rates simultaneously. The models included 2 random components: a sire random component with pedigree representing the sire genetic effects and a herd-year-season component. Moreover, the level of heterozygosity and the sire breed proportions were included in the models as covariates to account for potential nonadditive genetic effects due to the massive introduction of genetic material from other populations. The correlations between the sire components for death rate and slaughter rate were negative and small for the 3 populations, suggesting the existence of specific genetic mechanisms for each culling reason and common concurrent genetic mechanisms. In the Holstein population, the effects of the changes in the level of heterozygosity, breed composition, and the increasing genetic trend acted in the same direction, increasing the death rate in recent years. In the Jersey population, the effects of the level of heterozygosity and the breed proportion were small, and only the increasing genetic trend can be pointed as a genetic cause to the observed increase in the mortality rate. In the Red Danish population, neither the time-development pattern of the genetic trend nor the changes in the level of heterozygosity and breed composition could be causing the observed increase in the mortality; thus, nongenetic factors must be causing this negative development. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.

Feilberg A.,University of Aarhus | Adamsen A.P.S.,University of Aarhus | Lindholst S.,Danish Technological Institute DTI | Lyngbye M.,Danish Pig Production | Schafer A.,Danish Meat Research Institute
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2010

Biological air filters have been proposed as a cost-effective technology for reducing odor emissions from intensive swine production facilities. In this work we present results from the application of membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) for continuously monitoring the removal of odorous compounds in biological air filters. The sensitivity and selectivity were tested on synthetic samples of selected odorous compounds, and linearity and detection limits in the lower ppb range were demonstrated for all compounds tested (methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carboxylic acids, 4-methylphenol, aldehydes, indole, and skatole) except trimethylamine. The method was applied in situ at two full-scale filters installed at swine houses. The results have been compared with analyses by thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS), and odor was measured by olfactometry. By comparison with TD-GC/MS, observed MIMS signals were assigned to 4-methylphenol, 4-ethylphenol, indole, skatole, the sum of volatile reduced organic sulfur compounds (ROS), and three subgroups of carboxylic acids. The removal rates were observed to be related to air-water partitioning with removal efficiencies in the range of 0 to 50% for low-soluble organic sulfur compounds and high removal efficiencies (typically 80-100%) for more soluble phenols and carboxylic acids. Based on the results and published odor threshold values, it is estimated that the low removal efficiency of ROS is the main limitation for achieving a higher odor reduction. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

Heo J.M.,Murdoch University | Kim J.C.,Animal Research and Development | Hansen C.F.,Murdoch University | Hansen C.F.,Copenhagen University | And 5 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

The interactive effects of dietary protein level, zinc oxide (ZnO) supplementation and experimental infection with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) on the incidence of post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and indices of protein fermentation were examined. Ninety-six, individually housed 21-day-old pigs were used in a split plot experiment, with the whole plot being challenge or no challenge with ETEC and the dietary treatments used as subplots and arranged in a completely randomised 2×2 factorial design, with the factors being (i) 2 dietary protein levels [251g/kg (high) vs. 192g/kg (low) crude protein] and (ii) addition or no addition of 2500ppm ZnO. Between days 1 and 14 after weaning, ETEC infection increased faecal consistency (FC; looser faeces) but only in pigs fed the high protein diet (P<0.05) or without ZnO (P<0.1). Pigs fed a high protein diet without ZnO showed more loose faeces (higher FC) compared to pigs fed either a high protein diet with ZnO supplementation or pigs fed lower protein diets without and with ZnO supplementation (P<0.05). Feeding either a low protein diet or ZnO decreased (P<0.05) PWD. Feeding a low protein diet decreased (P<0.001) plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and faecal NH3-N contents. There were no 2- or 3-way interactions (P>0.05) between the independent variables for PWD, PUN and faecal NH3-N. The results indicate that feeding a low protein diet supplemented with amino acids or adding ZnO to either low or high protein diets could be used as dietary strategies to reduce PWD in piglets. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Norrby M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Madsen M.T.,Danish Pig Production | Saravia F.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Saravia F.,University of Concepción | And 2 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2011

Soya products containing phytooestrogens are widely used as feed for pigs. However, limited data are available on the effects of phytooestrogen on the endocrine status of pigs. The aim of this work was to study the impact of the phytooestrogen genistein added to a soya-free diet on the hormonal pattern in gilts during oestrus and artificial insemination (AI). Ten gilts were fed a soya-free diet and fitted with jugular vein catheter through vena auricularis. The gilts were randomly divided into two groups (G- and C-group) where the G-group was given pure genistein, 1mg/kg body weight (BW) twice daily, per os. Blood samples were collected before, during and after AI. Oxytocin, prostaglandin E 2, prostaglandin F 2α, 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F 2α (PGFM), cortisol and LH concentrations in blood plasma were analysed. Oxytocin concentrations were almost twice as high in the G-group as in C-group after the AI. Prostaglandin E 2 concentrations were higher in G-group than in C-group during the entire sampling period. After AI, the concentrations of prostaglandin E 2 increased in G-group but not in C-group. Prostaglandin F 2α concentration had a pulsatile pattern, with increasing pulses after AI in G-group. Plasma PGFM concentrations increased after AI with a small variation between the groups. Plasma cortisol concentration increased after AI in C-group. LH decreased after AI in G-group. Genistein stimulated elevations of plasma oxytocin and prostaglandin E 2 concentrations and a pulsative pattern in prostaglandin F 2α concentration. The possible involvement of genistein in plasma cortisol and basal LH concentrations in gilts given genistein may also be suggested. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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