Danish Meat Research Institute

Roskilde, Denmark

Danish Meat Research Institute

Roskilde, Denmark
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Rosenvold K.,Danish Meat Research Institute | Rosenvold K.,Agresearch Ltd. | Borup U.,Danish Meat Research Institute | Therkildsen M.,University of Aarhus
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

The current pork slaughter process is primarily optimized to reduce cooler shrink and the incidence of PSE pork. Elimination of the halothane gene and improved preslaughter handling have decreased the incidence of PSE pork and improved the water-holding capacity of the muscle; however, the chilling process has not been optimized to accommodate these changes. The hypothesis that stepwise chilling could improve tenderness without compromising water-holding capacity was tested in this study. The stepwise chilling treatments were composed of a rapid chilling to 10 or 15°C (in a chilling tunnel) and a 6-h holding period at 10 or 15°C, followed by rapid chilling to 4°C. Both treatments were compared directly with a chilling treatment that simulated conventional tunnel chilling; one carcass half from each pig was allocated to a stepwise chilling treatment, whereas the other carcass half was allocated to the control treatment. A total of 42 pigs were slaughtered on 6 slaughter days. Biopsies were collected for analysis of glycogen degradation and glycogen debranching enzyme activity from slaughter until 72 h postmortem, and samples for color, sarcomere length, drip loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and sensory analysis were removed from the carcass 24 h postmortem. Substantial temperature differences were obtained during the holding period between the stepwise and conventionally chilled carcass halves. These had almost, but not completely, disappeared by 22 h postmortem, and although the differences were small, pH was significantly (P < 0.01) less in the stepwise-chilled carcasses compared with the control carcasses. The stepwise chilling treatments led to significantly improved (P < 0.01) tenderness in LM without compromising quality indicators or attributes such as pH, drip loss, or ham processing yield, although color of the stepwise-chilled pork was affected. Neither the tenderness of processed semimembranosus muscle nor the shear force of biceps femoris muscle was affected (P > 0.05) because of the smaller temperature differences in these muscles. The improvements in tenderness could be solely attributed to the increased proteolysis postmortem in the stepwise-chilled carcasses, with the greater temperatures favoring proteolytic enzymes involved in muscle protein degradation. Furthermore, the results for glycogen metabolism successfully revealed that both pro- and macroglycogen contributed to the energy generation in postmortem muscles, with degradation of both forms early postmortem. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.

Straadt I.K.,University of Aarhus | Aaslyng M.D.,Danish Meat Research Institute | Bertram H.C.,University of Aarhus
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry | Year: 2011

In the present study, meat obtained from uncommon and novel pig crossings between the rare Iberian and Mangalitza pigs and the more frequent Duroc and Landrace/Yorkshire pigs was characterized by time-domain proton NMR relaxometry and high-resolution proton NMR spectroscopy to elucidate the potential of NMR to assess the meat quality of new-introduced pig breeds. Multivariate data analysis of proton NMR T 2 relaxation curves obtained on fresh meat samples revealed differences in the T 2 relaxation pattern of the different breeds included in the study. Comparison of NMR T 2 relaxation data with gravimetric determination of water-holding capacity (WHC) indicated that this should be ascribed to differences in the WHC of the different meats, and that NMR T 2 relaxation in accordance with previous studies provides unique information about WHC, which may be ascribed to the fact that NMR T 2 relaxation reflects information about intrinsic meat structure. High-resolution proton NMR spectroscopy of freeze exudate and meat extracts also revealed differences in the metabolite profile of the meat between the different breeds studied. The effects of breed on the amount of lactate in the freeze exudate were observed, which could be linked to WHC of the meat. In conclusion, the different NMR techniques applied could provide complementary information about biophysical and biochemical factors of importance for meat quality assessment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Feilberg A.,University of Aarhus | Adamsen A.P.S.,University of Aarhus | Lindholst S.,Danish Technological Institute DTI | Lyngbye M.,Danish Pig Production | Schafer A.,Danish Meat Research Institute
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2010

Biological air filters have been proposed as a cost-effective technology for reducing odor emissions from intensive swine production facilities. In this work we present results from the application of membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) for continuously monitoring the removal of odorous compounds in biological air filters. The sensitivity and selectivity were tested on synthetic samples of selected odorous compounds, and linearity and detection limits in the lower ppb range were demonstrated for all compounds tested (methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carboxylic acids, 4-methylphenol, aldehydes, indole, and skatole) except trimethylamine. The method was applied in situ at two full-scale filters installed at swine houses. The results have been compared with analyses by thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS), and odor was measured by olfactometry. By comparison with TD-GC/MS, observed MIMS signals were assigned to 4-methylphenol, 4-ethylphenol, indole, skatole, the sum of volatile reduced organic sulfur compounds (ROS), and three subgroups of carboxylic acids. The removal rates were observed to be related to air-water partitioning with removal efficiencies in the range of 0 to 50% for low-soluble organic sulfur compounds and high removal efficiencies (typically 80-100%) for more soluble phenols and carboxylic acids. Based on the results and published odor threshold values, it is estimated that the low removal efficiency of ROS is the main limitation for achieving a higher odor reduction. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

Leipold F.,Technical University of Denmark | Kusano Y.,Technical University of Denmark | Hansen F.,Danish Meat Research Institute | Jacobsen T.,Danish Meat Research Institute
Food Control | Year: 2010

The decontamination of a rotating cutting tool used for slicing in the meat industry by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua, is used for the experiments. A rotating knife was inoculated with L. innocua. The surface of the rotating knife was partly exposed to an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge operated in air, where the knife itself served as a ground electrode. The rotation of the knife ensures a treatment of the whole cutting tool. A log 5 reduction of L. innocua is obtained after 340 s of plasma operation. The temperature of the knife after treatment was found to be below 30 °C. The design of the setup allows a decontamination during slicing operation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dehlholm C.,Copenhagen University | Brockhoff P.B.,Technical University of Denmark | Meinert L.,Danish Meat Research Institute | Aaslyng M.D.,Danish Meat Research Institute | Bredie W.L.P.,Copenhagen University
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2012

Two new rapid descriptive sensory evaluation methods are introduced to the field of food sensory evaluation. The first method, free multiple sorting, allows subjects to perform ad libitum free sortings, until they feel that no more relevant dissimilarities among products remain. The second method is a modal restriction of Napping to specific sensory modalities, directing sensation and still allowing a holistic approach to products. The new methods are compared to Flash Profiling, Napping and conventional descriptive sensory profiling. Evaluations are performed by several panels of expert assessors originating from two distinct research environments. Evaluations are performed on the same nine pâté products and within the same period of time. Results are analysed configurationally (graphically) as well as with RV coefficients, semantically and practically. Parametric bootstrapped confidence ellipses are applied for the graphical validation and comparisons. This allows similar comparisons and is applicable to single-block evaluation designs such as Napping. The partial Napping allows repetitions on multiple sensory modalities, e.g. appearance, taste and mouthfeel, and shows the average of these repetitions to be significantly more closely related to the conventional profile than other methods. Semantic comparison shows large differences, with closest relations found between the two conventional profiles. This suggests that semantic results from an assessor in an evaluation type with no training sessions are dependent on the assessors' personal semantic skills. Comparisons of the methods' practical differences highlight the time advantage of the rapid approaches and their individual differences in the number of attributes generated. © 2012.

Aaslyng M.D.,Danish Meat Research Institute | Duedahl-Olesen L.,Technical University of Denmark | Jensen K.,Danish Meat Research Institute | Meinert L.,Danish Meat Research Institute
Meat Science | Year: 2013

It is a well-known fact that, when meat is barbecued, several harmful components, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), may be formed. The aim of this study was to determine the HCA and PAH content in meat (pork, chicken and beef) when barbecued at home by Danish consumers according to their normal practice. With regard to HCA, beef contained the highest concentrations of 9. H-pyrido[3,4- b]indole (norharman) and 2-methyl-β-carboline (harman), while chicken contained more 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (PhIP) than pork and beef. The analysis of PAH showed a markedly higher concentration of PAH in beef compared with pork and chicken. In general, a correlation between the HCA content and the surface colour of the meat was found, the darker the colour the higher the HCA concentrations. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Aaslyng M.D.,Danish Meat Research Institute | Torngren M.A.,Danish Meat Research Institute | Madsen N.T.,Danish Meat Research Institute
Meat Science | Year: 2010

Beef steaks retail-packed with (80% O2, 20% CO2) or without oxygen (either skin-packed or gas-packed (69.6% N2, 30% CO2, 0.04% CO or 70% N2, 30% CO2)) were compared by consumers in Denmark (n=382), Norway (n=316) and Sweden (n=374). Two pairs of two steaks - one steak packed in a high oxygen atmosphere and one packed without oxygen - were given to the consumers. They were instructed to prepare the steaks at home on two consecutive days, and two persons had to taste each steak. In Denmark, the oxygen-free packing was either gas packing with CO (69.6% N2, 30% CO2, 0.04% CO) or without CO (70% N2, 30% CO2), in Norway it was either gas packing with CO (69.6% N2, 30% CO2, 0.04% CO) or skin packing, and in Sweden it was either skin packing or gas packing without CO (70% N2, 30% CO2). The meat represented animals that were between 17 and 80months old (Denmark) and young bulls (Norway and Sweden). Consumers in all three countries clearly preferred steaks packed without oxygen, in terms of overall liking, willingness to pay and their preferred choice of one steak. Furthermore, they preferred the oxygen-free steaks in terms of both overall liking and liking of tenderness, juiciness and flavour. In Sweden, many consumers would pay more than usual for the skin-packed steak, and it was more often chosen as the preferred steak out of the four compared with gas-packed without oxygen. No difference was seen between the two oxygen-free packing methods in Denmark and Norway. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Hinrichsen L.,Danish Meat Research Institute
Meat Science | Year: 2010

The Danish pig meat industry is very export oriented. Ninety per cent of the production of the big cooperative slaughterhouses is exported to more than 100 countries all over the world. This poses a requirement for the industry to be globally competitive in the sense of quality, product safety and - of course - price. A big challenge for the industry is therefore to maintain sufficient low unit costs in spite of the high factor costs of Denmark. In particular the high labour costs must be accompanied by correspondingly high labour productivity. And, it should be emphasized, this high labour productivity must be achieved without compromising the concern for good working conditions of the employees in the manufacturing. Technology is one of the means to achieve this combination of good working conditions and high labour productivity. One of the most important benefits from automation is the improved working environment. Pig slaughtering, cutting and boning is traditionally very labour intensive and requires hard and repetitive work. For many people a job in a slaughterhouse is therefore not their first choice. This situation can be changed by automation, which will not only reduce arduous and repetitive work but in addition will introduce more motivating jobs in terms of planning, supervision and control of the new technology. Automation will also improve the hygiene and thereby the food safety. This applies in particular to the clean slaughter line where cross contamination between carcasses is reduced because of less manual handling and because the tools in the machines can be sterilised more effectively between each carcass. Automated processes are more accurate and repeatable than manual work. For some processes, in particular in cutting and boning, this will enhance the product yield. New technology can also improve the animal welfare. The group-stunning system and mechanised lairage systems are examples of that. Improved animal welfare has an ethical value in itself and also a value in terms of the enhanced meat quality resulting from the more considerate treatment of the animals. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Aaslyng M.D.,Danish Meat Research Institute | Frost M.B.,Copenhagen University
Journal of Sensory Studies | Year: 2010

Most food is eaten as meals and taste interactions between individual components of a meal may occur. These interactions were studied to examine the effect of combinations of vegetable accompaniments on sensory properties of pork patties. A solution of three basic tastes (sour, bitter and salty) and subsequently vegetables representing the same basic tastes (sour: pickled cucumber, bitter: arugula, and salty: salted potatoes) were tested. Results showed that indeed interactions occurred, but in more complex meal combinations the effects are smaller than if only one basic taste is used, as previously demonstrated. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Trinderup C.H.,Technical University of Denmark | Dahl A.,Technical University of Denmark | Jensen K.,Danish Meat Research Institute | Carstensen J.M.,Technical University of Denmark | Conradsen K.,Technical University of Denmark
Meat Science | Year: 2015

The color assessment ability of a multispectral vision system is investigated by a comparison study with color measurements from a traditional colorimeter. The experiment involves fresh and processed meat samples. Meat is a complex material; heterogeneous with varying scattering and reflectance properties, so several factors can influence the instrumental assessment of meat color. In order to assess whether two methods are equivalent, the variation due to these factors must be taken into account. A statistical analysis was conducted and showed that on a calibration sheet the two instruments are equally capable of measuring color. Moreover the vision system provides a more color rich assessment of fresh meat samples with a glossier surface, than the colorimeter. Careful studies of the different sources of variation enable an assessment of the order of magnitude of the variability between methods accounting for other sources of variation leading to the conclusion that color assessment using a multispectral vision system is superior to traditional colorimeter assessments. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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