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Namara R.E.,International Water Management Institute IWMI | Hanjra M.A.,Charles Sturt University | Castillo G.E.,Novib | Ravnborg H.M.,Danish Institute for International Studies DIIS | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010

Water is critically important to the livelihoods of more than 1 billion people living on less than $1 a day, particularly for the 850 million rural poor primarily engaged in agriculture. In many developing countries, water is a major factor constraining agricultural output, and income of the world's rural poor. Improved agricultural water management can contribute to poverty reduction through several pathways. First, access to reliable water improves production and productivity, enhances employment opportunities and stabilizes income and consumption. Secondly, it encourages the utilization of other yield-enhancing inputs and allows diversification into high-value products, enhances nonfarm outputs and employment, and fulfils multiple needs of households. Third, it may contribute either negatively or positively to nutritional status, health, societal equity and environment. The net impact of agricultural water management interventions on poverty may depend individually and/or synergistically on the working of these pathways. Improved access to water is essential, but not sufficient for sustained poverty reduction. Investments are needed in agricultural science and technology, policies and institutions, economic reform, addressing global agricultural trade inequities, etc. But how best to match the agricultural water management technologies, institutions and policies to the needs of the heterogeneous poor living in diverse agro-ecological settings remains unclear. This article provides a menu of promising pathways through which agricultural water management can contribute to sustained poverty reduction. © 2009. Source


Van Munster R.,Danish Institute for International Studies DIIS | Sylvest C.,University of Southern Denmark
Technology and Culture | Year: 2015

In light of repeated failures to reach political agreement on effective policies to combat climate change, pro-nuclear environmentalists have set out to reverse the traditionally anti-nuclear inclinations of environmentalists. This essay examines the ideological commitments and assumptions of pro-nuclear environmentalism by performing a critical, historical analysis of the nuclear-environment nexus through the prism of documentary film. We focus on the work and career of documentary filmmaker Rob Stone, whose most recent production, Pandora’s Promise (PP) (2013), has emerged as a central statement of this creed. PP actively forges a new political imaginary that replaces the apocalyptic image of nuclear fallout with that of catastrophic climate change. In terms of its rhetorical and visual strategies, however, PP also reveals that pro-nuclear environmentalist arguments have a long lineage. A close study of such continuities reveals a number of political implications that call for reflection as well as caution. © 2015 by the Society for the History of Technology. All rights reserved. Source


Pedersen R.H.,Danish Institute for International Studies DIIS
Development Policy Review | Year: 2015

Contemporary land reforms in sub-Saharan Africa tend to be evaluated based on the state-centric reforms of the past, which disadvantaged women. However, this article argues that the new-wave of land reforms and their decentralised administration institutions and anti-discriminatory legal frameworks may be different. Based on field research on the implementation of Tanzania's 1999 Land Acts, it identifies an institutional reconfiguration in which the formal institutions are gradually strengthened and the customary institutions slowly changed. This does not in itself pose a threat to women's access to land and some women, who are otherwise often perceived to be weak, are left better-off. Nevertheless, access to land becomes socially more uneven. © 2015 Overseas Development Institute. Source


Wendimu M.A.,Copenhagen University | Wendimu M.A.,Danish Institute for International Studies DIIS
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2016

Increasing fuel prices, concern about climate change and future energy security have led to tremendous global interest in the use of liquid biofuels in the transport sector which, in turn, has driven large-scale land acquisitions in developing countries for biofuel feedstock production. However, regardless of the vast nature of reported land deals and widespread concern about their potential negative consequences, implementation of most of the reported biofuel land deals in Ethiopia has not yet happened. Using a case study of large-scale jatropha plantation in Ethiopia, this paper examines the main causes underpinning the disappointing agronomic performance and finally termination of large-scale jatropha plantations. Although it has been argued that jatropha can be commercially grown well on marginal land without irrigation, this study indicates that moisture stress was the key factor in the failure of many large-scale jatropha plantations in Ethiopia. Furthermore, the use of untested planting material and conflict with local communities over the land were other important factors that contributed to termination of jatropha projects. © 2015 International Energy Initiative. Source


Ravnborg H.M.,Danish Institute for International Studies DIIS | Jensen K.M.,Danish Institute for International Studies DIIS
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2012

In 2010, the UN General Assembly declared the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights. Yet, findings from the Competing for Water research programme suggest that all too often, people in need of water for domestic purposes lose out to people and companies who claim access to water for productive purposes. Likewise, in many countries, specific water authorities at national as well as basin and watershed level have been formed and assigned the responsibility to allocate water according to the water policy and the associated legal framework. Yet, findings from the Competing for Water research programme show that real-world water allocation takes place through a wide array of institutions, ranging from the rural community, over agreements mediated by local lawyers, district officials and non-governmental organisations, to decisions made in the president's office. The Competing for Water programme entails empirical research conducted in Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia. Based on findings from this research, this paper identifies the discrepancies between statutory and actual water governance, analyses the underlying causes and explores the implications for ongoing water governance reform. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012. Source

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