Munive J.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Journal of Agrarian Change | Year: 2011
The main argument in this article is that in order to understand the mobilization of youth during the Liberian civil war, it is imperative to investigate how manpower has been mobilized historically. The issue of soldiering can be understood partly as a result of the political history of the Liberian state; in particular, its territorialization. This paper explores how labour has been mobilized historically and details what determined labour-force participation before the outbreak of the civil war. During the twentieth century, labour in Liberia was organized to service the functions of a resource-extraction economy, a prominent place being given to the main resource-based export industry, namely rubber, and the role of international companies. The administrative practices of the state in recruiting labour to these industries are central to mobilization. Efforts to demobilize and reintegrate combatants should take account of these historical legacies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ponte S.,Danish Institute for International Studies |
Ponte S.,Copenhagen Business School
Journal of Agrarian Change | Year: 2012
Market-based instruments of fishery governance have been promoted in the past two decades on the basis of two widespread expectations: that complying with sustainability standards will lead to environmental benefits; and that certifications will not discriminate against specific social groups, countries or regions. This paper assesses whether these assumptions hold through the analysis of how the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) label for capture fisheries has managed 'supply', 'demand' and 'civic' concerns in the market for sustainability certifications. The MSC has created and now dominates the market for 'sustainable fish', but success has been accompanied by serious challenges. The MSC has so far failed to convincingly show that its certification system has positive environmental impacts, and it has marginalized Southern fisheries, especially in low-income countries. As an institutional solution to the global fishery crisis, the MSC seems to be better tuned to the creation of a market for 'sustainable fish' rather than 'sustainable fisheries'. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ponte S.,Danish Institute for International Studies |
Richey L.A.,Roskilde University
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2011
(PRODUCT) RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of 'causumerism' (shopping for a better world) by enrolling consumers in ways that do not rely on accurate knowledge of the products or specific understanding of the cause that The Global Fund engages but, instead, rely on a system of more general, affective affinity between the 'aid celebrities' who are behind RED (such as Bono) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help 'distant others'. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems 'prove' that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well-labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating a proportion of sales income to help distant others in Africa. The iconic brands sitting under the RED umbrella also play an important role as they offer a consistent and known venue for channeling consumer affect. We argue that celebrity validation, backed up by iconic brands, facilitates at least three shifts in the realm of causumerism: from 'conscious consumption' (mainly based on product-related information) to 'compassionate consumption' (mainly based on the management of consumer affect); from attention to the product and its production process toward the medical treatment of the 'people with the problem' (AIDS patients in Africa); and from addressing the causes of problems to solving their manifestations. © 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.
Bourgouin F.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy | Year: 2011
A historical overview of the political processes that have affected the minerals industry in Africa over the past 30 years is presented. The minerals industry in Africa is a sector that has been rapidly privatized, with resource-endowed countries benefiting from the influx of FDI and the increased presence of transnational mining corporations. The primary focus for African governments consist of a specific set of measures aimed at attracting FDI and reducing investment risk for private mining companies. The World Bank prescribed four main areas for attention that include appropriate regulatory framework, economic and fiscal policy, institutional reforms and infrastructure, and environmental effects. The structural adjustment programs (SAP) generally sought to implement free market program and policy. These programs include internal changes and external ones, especially the reduction of trade barriers. Institutions such as the World Bank were significantly involved in the policy making process with regards to mining in Africa.
Jensen K.M.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Water Alternatives | Year: 2013
The water world is dominated by normative policies prescribing what 'good development' is all about. It is a universe of its own where policies live their own lives and feed in and out of each other. As new buzzwords continue to be invented or reinvented, policies continue to maintain their shiny images of how water resources or water supply should be managed. There are many water professionals acting as missionaries in the service of policies but probably fewer professionals acting up against blindfolded policy promotion. It is when water policies are being implemented in the real world that the trouble starts. In spite of their well-intended mission, water policies often suffer shipwreck on the socio-economic and political realities in developing countries. Through cases from India and the Mekong, the author demonstrates what happens when normative water polices are forced out of their comfort zone and into social and political realities. Although policies are made of stubborn material they need to be questioned through continuous analytical insight into developing country realities. But undertaking critical analysis and questioning the wisdom of water policies are easier said than done. It takes a lot of effort to swim against the policy current.