Danish Institute for International Studies

Copenhagen, Denmark

Danish Institute for International Studies

Copenhagen, Denmark
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Fejerskov A.M.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Science Technology and Human Values | Year: 2017

Science and technology have been integral issues of development cooperation for more than sixty years. Contrary to early efforts’ transfer of established technologies from the West to developing countries, contemporary technology aspirations increasingly articulate and practice the Global South as a live laboratory for technological experimentation. This approach is especially furthered by a group of private foundations and philanthrocapitalists whose endeavors in developing countries are, like their companies, shaped by logics of the individual, the market, and of societal progress through technological innovation and experimentation. This article draws upon critical intellectual thought about the political and social ramifications of technology to reflect on the renascent role of technology in development cooperation. It traces the discourses and practices of philanthrocapitalist organizations, in particular the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, to understand how their experimentalist technology aspirations influence human life and relations in the Global South. This article argues that this newfound focus on technology in development cooperation may challenge the essence of democracy, reduce participation, and have undesirable consequences for populations in the Global South. © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.

Hansen P.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2010

Aim of the study: This article presents an analysis of the economic, political and socio-cultural significance of khat in Somaliland, highlighting both its positive and negative effects. Materials and methods: Thirteen months of anthropological fieldwork in Somaliland, two months of anthropological fieldwork among Somalis in London, four months experience from the Somalia Joint Needs Assessment working as a development specialist on khat, as well as available and relevant literature. Results: The recent growth in khat consumption in Somaliland is linked to dispersal, unemployment, socio-cultural changes caused by the civil war, and the massive inflow of remittances. Consumption takes place because of an encouraging socio-cultural environment, few opportunities for education and employment, lack of care and support from parents, as well as widespread availability. Khat represents a significant economic drain on the Somaliland economy, but is also an important source of income for the state and an employment opportunity for thousands. The consumption of khat among government employees challenges the efficiency of state institutions, but also provides a participatory and peaceful political environment that is vital to the democratic transformation of Somaliland. Khat causes the breakdown of families and seriously challenges Somali socio-cultural identities, values and practices. However, khat also strengthens male networks, communities and senses of belonging to Somaliland. Conclusion: The article argues that khat has both negative and positive effects on Somaliland society. Comparing the role of khat in Somaliland with khat in Puntland and South-central Somalia it is clear that khat in itself does not determine if it contributes to state building and peace, or state failure and violence. Rather, it is the socio-cultural, political and historical context in which it is consumed that determines its larger societal effects. A nuanced analysis of the positive and negative aspects of khat that builds on local perceptions and practices is necessary in order to work with khat from a regulatory and developmental perspective. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Lundsgaarde E.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Global Policy | Year: 2017

Public sector actors express rising interest in multi-stakeholder initiatives as a means of expanding private sector contributions to address sustainable development goals. Private sector interests in participating in such initiatives have however received limited attention. This article examines business motives for associating with global multi-stakeholder initiatives by analyzing corporate engagement with the Energy Efficiency Accelerator Platform of the Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL) initiative. The analysis of the characteristics of participating firms highlights that the platform has mainly attracted companies based in Europe and those with a broad geographical reach. The article identifies clear economic rationales for companies to participate. The analysis emphasizes that indirect gains to firms through activities designed to shape the market for the uptake of energy efficient technologies and direct gains related to connecting with potential customers through networking activities are key motives for business participation. This case indicates that multi-stakeholder initiatives can provide a platform for transforming markets by facilitating interactions between private sector actors and national and subnational governments. © 2017 University of Durham and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Ravnborg H.M.,Danish Institute for International Studies | Gomez L.I.,Ixmati Instituto Centroamericano Para El Desarrollo Of Capacidades Humanas
World Development | Year: 2015

Ideally, poverty indicators improve because poor people's livelihoods are improved. They can, however, also improve because poor people are expelled from the territory. This article explores the case of the cattle region of Chontales, Nicaragua, which during 1998-2005 experienced economic growth and declining poverty rates, spurred by investments and organizational development. The article argues that in the absence of pro-poor coalitions, these investments facilitated the return and strengthening of the local elite and that the observed decline in poverty rates emerges as the result of dispossession and subsequent exodus of the poor rather than of inclusive economic growth. © 2014.

Ponte S.,Danish Institute for International Studies | Ponte S.,Copenhagen Business School
Journal of Agrarian Change | Year: 2012

Market-based instruments of fishery governance have been promoted in the past two decades on the basis of two widespread expectations: that complying with sustainability standards will lead to environmental benefits; and that certifications will not discriminate against specific social groups, countries or regions. This paper assesses whether these assumptions hold through the analysis of how the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) label for capture fisheries has managed 'supply', 'demand' and 'civic' concerns in the market for sustainability certifications. The MSC has created and now dominates the market for 'sustainable fish', but success has been accompanied by serious challenges. The MSC has so far failed to convincingly show that its certification system has positive environmental impacts, and it has marginalized Southern fisheries, especially in low-income countries. As an institutional solution to the global fishery crisis, the MSC seems to be better tuned to the creation of a market for 'sustainable fish' rather than 'sustainable fisheries'. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Crone M.,Danish Institute for International Studies | Harrow M.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2011

The London bombings in 2005 led to the perception that the terrorist threat had changed from external to internal. This became conceptualized shortly after as "homegrown terrorism." This article deals with the meaning and scope of this phenomenon. We begin by tracing an ambiguity in the term "homegrown," which is both about belonging in the West and autonomy from terrorist groups abroad. A quantitative study of Islamist terrorism in the West since 1989 reveals an increase in both internal and autonomous terrorism since 2003 and that most plots are now internal-but not autonomous. Finally we suggest that an increase in autonomous terrorism is a transitory phenomenon. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Munive J.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Journal of Agrarian Change | Year: 2011

The main argument in this article is that in order to understand the mobilization of youth during the Liberian civil war, it is imperative to investigate how manpower has been mobilized historically. The issue of soldiering can be understood partly as a result of the political history of the Liberian state; in particular, its territorialization. This paper explores how labour has been mobilized historically and details what determined labour-force participation before the outbreak of the civil war. During the twentieth century, labour in Liberia was organized to service the functions of a resource-extraction economy, a prominent place being given to the main resource-based export industry, namely rubber, and the role of international companies. The administrative practices of the state in recruiting labour to these industries are central to mobilization. Efforts to demobilize and reintegrate combatants should take account of these historical legacies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jensen K.M.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Water Alternatives | Year: 2013

The water world is dominated by normative policies prescribing what 'good development' is all about. It is a universe of its own where policies live their own lives and feed in and out of each other. As new buzzwords continue to be invented or reinvented, policies continue to maintain their shiny images of how water resources or water supply should be managed. There are many water professionals acting as missionaries in the service of policies but probably fewer professionals acting up against blindfolded policy promotion. It is when water policies are being implemented in the real world that the trouble starts. In spite of their well-intended mission, water policies often suffer shipwreck on the socio-economic and political realities in developing countries. Through cases from India and the Mekong, the author demonstrates what happens when normative water polices are forced out of their comfort zone and into social and political realities. Although policies are made of stubborn material they need to be questioned through continuous analytical insight into developing country realities. But undertaking critical analysis and questioning the wisdom of water policies are easier said than done. It takes a lot of effort to swim against the policy current.

Vestergaard J.,Danish Institute for International Studies | Wade R.H.,The London School of Economics and Political Science
Global Policy | Year: 2012

The literature on international network governance commonly presumes an 'effectiveness-legitimacy dilemma': gains in effectiveness at problem solving, perhaps via smaller size, come at cost to legitimacy, because the smaller the network the more those expected to comply with network decisions are excluded and are therefore less likely to accept network decisions; and gains in legitimacy come at cost to effectiveness, perhaps because of more diversity of interests. In the case of the G20, however, the dilemma breaks down, because the G20 scores low on both effectiveness and legitimacy. In this article we present a design for a new global economic governance body, based on explicit membership criteria (as the G20 is not), in the form of a modified version of the Bretton Woods (World Bank and IMF) governance arrangement. The proposed new Global Economic Council (GEC), operating at heads of government level and below, would likely bring substantial gains in both effectiveness and legitimacy. © 2012 London School of Economics and Political Science and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Vestergaard J.,Danish Institute for International Studies | Wade R.H.,The London School of Economics and Political Science
Global Policy | Year: 2015

The Western hegemony of the past 200 years is ending as power shifts towards the East and as Western states lose the authority to uphold a rules-based multilateral order. In the wake of the Great Crash of 2008 the G20 leaders took steps to bolster the multilateral order, including reform of the governance of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank so as to reflect the increasing economic weight of developing countries. The executive boards of both organizations affirmed that the primary criterion for allocating voting shares should be shares of world GDP. We show that the reforms at the IMF and the World Bank have substantially failed to meet their ostensible objectives. First, in both organizations the developed countries gained voting share relative to GDP share between 2009 and 2014. Second, countries continue to vary widely in their share of votes relative to share of world GDP; in both organizations some countries have six times or more the votes relative to GDP of others. Politicians and analysts should give attention to achieving more equitable governance in these important multilateral organizations. At the end of this article we show how this could be done. © 2014 University of Durham and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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