Danish Institute for International Studies

Copenhagen, Denmark

Danish Institute for International Studies

Copenhagen, Denmark

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Ponte S.,Danish Institute for International Studies | Ponte S.,Copenhagen Business School
Journal of Agrarian Change | Year: 2012

Market-based instruments of fishery governance have been promoted in the past two decades on the basis of two widespread expectations: that complying with sustainability standards will lead to environmental benefits; and that certifications will not discriminate against specific social groups, countries or regions. This paper assesses whether these assumptions hold through the analysis of how the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) label for capture fisheries has managed 'supply', 'demand' and 'civic' concerns in the market for sustainability certifications. The MSC has created and now dominates the market for 'sustainable fish', but success has been accompanied by serious challenges. The MSC has so far failed to convincingly show that its certification system has positive environmental impacts, and it has marginalized Southern fisheries, especially in low-income countries. As an institutional solution to the global fishery crisis, the MSC seems to be better tuned to the creation of a market for 'sustainable fish' rather than 'sustainable fisheries'. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Crone M.,Danish Institute for International Studies | Harrow M.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2011

The London bombings in 2005 led to the perception that the terrorist threat had changed from external to internal. This became conceptualized shortly after as "homegrown terrorism." This article deals with the meaning and scope of this phenomenon. We begin by tracing an ambiguity in the term "homegrown," which is both about belonging in the West and autonomy from terrorist groups abroad. A quantitative study of Islamist terrorism in the West since 1989 reveals an increase in both internal and autonomous terrorism since 2003 and that most plots are now internal-but not autonomous. Finally we suggest that an increase in autonomous terrorism is a transitory phenomenon. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Ravnborg H.M.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Water International | Year: 2016

Secure and legally sanctioned access to water is gaining significance to farmers to cushion themselves against climate change and to participate in markets that are increasingly concerned with social and environmental responsibility. Nicaragua is among the countries which recently has introduced a new water rights regime as part of its water governance reform. The article analyzes the extent to which the reform has succeeded in providing water security for all. The article argues that due to selective and partial implementation, the water governance reform could lead to the concentration of enforceable water rights in the hands of the few. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Munive J.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Journal of Agrarian Change | Year: 2011

The main argument in this article is that in order to understand the mobilization of youth during the Liberian civil war, it is imperative to investigate how manpower has been mobilized historically. The issue of soldiering can be understood partly as a result of the political history of the Liberian state; in particular, its territorialization. This paper explores how labour has been mobilized historically and details what determined labour-force participation before the outbreak of the civil war. During the twentieth century, labour in Liberia was organized to service the functions of a resource-extraction economy, a prominent place being given to the main resource-based export industry, namely rubber, and the role of international companies. The administrative practices of the state in recruiting labour to these industries are central to mobilization. Efforts to demobilize and reintegrate combatants should take account of these historical legacies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jensen K.M.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Water Alternatives | Year: 2013

The water world is dominated by normative policies prescribing what 'good development' is all about. It is a universe of its own where policies live their own lives and feed in and out of each other. As new buzzwords continue to be invented or reinvented, policies continue to maintain their shiny images of how water resources or water supply should be managed. There are many water professionals acting as missionaries in the service of policies but probably fewer professionals acting up against blindfolded policy promotion. It is when water policies are being implemented in the real world that the trouble starts. In spite of their well-intended mission, water policies often suffer shipwreck on the socio-economic and political realities in developing countries. Through cases from India and the Mekong, the author demonstrates what happens when normative water polices are forced out of their comfort zone and into social and political realities. Although policies are made of stubborn material they need to be questioned through continuous analytical insight into developing country realities. But undertaking critical analysis and questioning the wisdom of water policies are easier said than done. It takes a lot of effort to swim against the policy current.

Christoplos I.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Geografisk Tidsskrift | Year: 2012

This article unpacks the problematic relationship between emerging climate change adaptation norms and changes underway in agricultural extension. It is increasingly recognised that in order to apply new knowledge about climate change in rural development practice a more institutional perspective is needed, but there is no clear consensus on what this implies. This article looks at agricultural extension as an example of a meso-level institution that is frequently assumed to be a major potential "implementing partner" in climate adaptation efforts, at the same time as it is also often portrayed as a worst-case example of the obstacles encountered in changing the focus of a path dependent bureaucracy. This article contrasts the perspectives of normative climate adaptation frameworks (exemplified by the 2011 World Resources Report) with what is known about prevailing extension trends and realities. It is suggested that long lists of recommended climate adaptation tasks and technologies may distract from an understanding of the institutional change processes underway within meso-level institutions, wherein the climate agenda would need to be merged with other agendas related to pluralistic, pragmatic, accountable, sustainable and market-oriented rural development. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Engberg-Pedersen L.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Development Policy Review | Year: 2014

In 2003, the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs undertook a decentralisation of the management of bilateral aid to the embassies in major partner countries. However, while decentralisation appears to live up to the principles of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, the specific delegation of responsibilities as well as the political context of aid management may jeopardise the intended contribution to effective development co-operation. This article explores some factors potentially limiting the usefulness of decentralised aid management in the Danish case, and discusses certain intra-organisational dynamics and extra-organisational pressures influencing 'donor effectiveness'. © 2013 Overseas Development Institute.

Vestergaard J.,Danish Institute for International Studies | Wade R.H.,The London School of Economics and Political Science
Global Policy | Year: 2012

The literature on international network governance commonly presumes an 'effectiveness-legitimacy dilemma': gains in effectiveness at problem solving, perhaps via smaller size, come at cost to legitimacy, because the smaller the network the more those expected to comply with network decisions are excluded and are therefore less likely to accept network decisions; and gains in legitimacy come at cost to effectiveness, perhaps because of more diversity of interests. In the case of the G20, however, the dilemma breaks down, because the G20 scores low on both effectiveness and legitimacy. In this article we present a design for a new global economic governance body, based on explicit membership criteria (as the G20 is not), in the form of a modified version of the Bretton Woods (World Bank and IMF) governance arrangement. The proposed new Global Economic Council (GEC), operating at heads of government level and below, would likely bring substantial gains in both effectiveness and legitimacy. © 2012 London School of Economics and Political Science and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Bourgouin F.,Danish Institute for International Studies
Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy | Year: 2011

A historical overview of the political processes that have affected the minerals industry in Africa over the past 30 years is presented. The minerals industry in Africa is a sector that has been rapidly privatized, with resource-endowed countries benefiting from the influx of FDI and the increased presence of transnational mining corporations. The primary focus for African governments consist of a specific set of measures aimed at attracting FDI and reducing investment risk for private mining companies. The World Bank prescribed four main areas for attention that include appropriate regulatory framework, economic and fiscal policy, institutional reforms and infrastructure, and environmental effects. The structural adjustment programs (SAP) generally sought to implement free market program and policy. These programs include internal changes and external ones, especially the reduction of trade barriers. Institutions such as the World Bank were significantly involved in the policy making process with regards to mining in Africa.

Vestergaard J.,Danish Institute for International Studies | Wade R.H.,The London School of Economics and Political Science
Global Policy | Year: 2015

The Western hegemony of the past 200 years is ending as power shifts towards the East and as Western states lose the authority to uphold a rules-based multilateral order. In the wake of the Great Crash of 2008 the G20 leaders took steps to bolster the multilateral order, including reform of the governance of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank so as to reflect the increasing economic weight of developing countries. The executive boards of both organizations affirmed that the primary criterion for allocating voting shares should be shares of world GDP. We show that the reforms at the IMF and the World Bank have substantially failed to meet their ostensible objectives. First, in both organizations the developed countries gained voting share relative to GDP share between 2009 and 2014. Second, countries continue to vary widely in their share of votes relative to share of world GDP; in both organizations some countries have six times or more the votes relative to GDP of others. Politicians and analysts should give attention to achieving more equitable governance in these important multilateral organizations. At the end of this article we show how this could be done. © 2014 University of Durham and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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