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Tagesson T.,Copenhagen University | Fensholt R.,Copenhagen University | Guiro I.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Rasmussen M.O.,Copenhagen University | And 17 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2015

The Dahra field site in Senegal, West Africa, was established in 2002 to monitor ecosystem properties of semiarid savanna grassland and their responses to climatic and environmental change. This article describes the environment and the ecosystem properties of the site using a unique set of in situ data. The studied variables include hydroclimatic variables, species composition, albedo, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), hyperspectral characteristics (350-1800 nm), surface reflectance anisotropy, brightness temperature, fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (FAPAR), biomass, vegetation water content, and land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon (NEE) and energy. The Dahra field site experiences a typical Sahelian climate and is covered by coexisting trees (~3% canopy cover) and grass species, characterizing large parts of the Sahel. This makes the site suitable for investigating relationships between ecosystem properties and hydroclimatic variables for semiarid savanna ecosystems of the region. There were strong interannual, seasonal and diurnal dynamics in NEE, with high values of ~-7.5 g C m-2 day-1 during the peak of the growing season. We found neither browning nor greening NDVI trends from 2002 to 2012. Interannual variation in species composition was strongly related to rainfall distribution. NDVI and FAPAR were strongly related to species composition, especially for years dominated by the species Zornia glochidiata. This influence was not observed in interannual variation in biomass and vegetation productivity, thus challenging dryland productivity models based on remote sensing. Surface reflectance anisotropy (350-1800 nm) at the peak of the growing season varied strongly depending on wavelength and viewing angle thereby having implications for the design of remotely sensed spectral vegetation indices covering different wavelength regions. The presented time series of in situ data have great potential for dryland dynamics studies, global climate change related research and evaluation and parameterization of remote sensing products and dynamic vegetation models. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Trombe P.-J.,Technical University of Denmark | Pinson P.,Technical University of Denmark | Vincent C.,Technical University of Denmark | Bovith T.,Danish Meteorological Institute | And 10 more authors.
Wind Energy | Year: 2014

Offshore wind fluctuations are such that dedicated prediction and control systems are needed for optimizing the management of wind farms in real-time. In this paper, we present a pioneer experiment - Radar@Sea - in which weather radars are used for monitoring the weather at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm, in the North Sea. First, they enable the collection of meteorological observations at high spatio-temporal resolutions for enhancing the understanding of meteorological phenomena that drive wind fluctuations. And second, with the extended visibility they offer, they can provide relevant inputs to prediction systems for anticipating changes in the wind fluctuation dynamics, generating improved wind power forecasts and developing specific control strategies. However, integrating weather radar observations into automated decision support systems is not a plug-and-play task, and it is important to develop a multi-disciplinary approach linking meteorology and statistics. Here, (i) we describe the settings of the Radar@Sea experiment, (ii) we report the experience gained with these new remote sensing tools, (iii) we illustrate their capabilities with some concrete meteorological events observed at Horns Rev and (iv) we discuss the future perspectives for weather radars in wind energy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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