Horsholm, Denmark
Horsholm, Denmark

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Graf T.,IRD Fuel Cells | Iskov H.,Danish Gas Technology Center | Koch B.,DONG Energy
International Gas Research Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

To achieve the Danish goal of 100% renewable energy by 2050, it is absolutely necessary to focus on conversion between different energy sources and on the opportunity for storing large amounts of energy. The natural gas grid and electrolysis play a crucial role. Power from wind and solar can be converted by electrolysis into hydrogen which can be stored in the gas grid. If the hydrogen impact causes damage to the material, the damage may not be visible until the material has been exposed to hydrogen over a long period of time. On project completion, the projects partners will know how the gas system is to be maintained in the future and how a reliable green gas system can still be ensured. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the International Gas Union Research Conference (Copenhagen, Denmark 9/17-19/2014).


Kvist T.,Danish Gas Technology Center | Moller F.,University of Aarhus
International Gas Research Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

Adjustments of natural gas fired engines leading to lower NOx emissions normally result in increased emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and CO. A project was conducted to assess to which extent it is possible to reduce the emissions by adjusting the different engines studied and to determine the cost of the harm caused by emissions from natural gas combustion. However, only health and climate effects were included. External costs of the following chemical components present in flue from natural gas fired engines were determined: NOx, ethylene, propylene, and formaldehyde. The emissions of NOx, CO, and UHC and the composition of the hydrocarbon emissions were measured for four different stationary lean-burn natural gas-fired engines installed at different CHP units in Denmark. On average, the NOx reduction potential corresponds to a reduction of 40% relative to the present level. Such reduction will lead to an increase of UHC emissions of 12% and the CO emission will increase by 19%. The natural gas consumption for the gas engines will increase by 1.5% to keep the power production constant. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the International Gas Union Research Conference (Copenhagen, Denmark 9/17-19/2014).


Puig-Arnavat M.,Technical University of Denmark | Sogaard M.,Technical University of Denmark | Hjuler K.,FLSmidth, Inc. | Hjuler K.,Danish Gas Technology Center | And 3 more authors.
Energy | Year: 2015

The present paper describes the integration of oxygen membranes in cement plants both from an energy, exergy and economic point of view. Different configurations for oxygen enrichment of the tertiary air for combustion in the pre-calciner and full oxy-fuel combustion in both pre-calciner and kiln are examined. The economic figures of merit are compared with those from a standard cryogenic plant. Both oxygen enriched air and full oxy-fuel cases allow for an increase in clinker production, use of alternative fuels as well as on-site electricity production. In addition, the full oxy-fuel cases generate a concentrated CO2 source that can be used for enhanced oil recovery, in combination with biomass gasification and electrolysis for synthesis gas production, or possibly sequestered. The cases with oxygen enriched air provide very promising economic figures of merit with discounted payback periods slightly higher than one year. The full oxy-fuel cases have a discounted payback period of approximately 2.3 years assuming a CO2 selling price of 35 US$/ton. The sensitivity analysis of full oxy-fuel cases clearly shows that for the discounted payback period, the most sensitive parameters are the CO2 price and the clinker selling price. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Jorgensen B.,Danish Gas Technology Center | Kvist T.,Danish Gas Technology Center
International Gas Research Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

From its commissioning, the Danish natural gas grid has been dimensioned for sweet natural gas, with no corrosion allowance at the current operating pressure. Therefore, it is important that no gas in the grid will induce corrosion. The FORCE Technology project elucidates which parameters are the most crucial to have a gas composition that does not jeopardize the safety or shorten the lifetime of the Danish natural gas steel grid. Focus was on water, CO2, H2S, and oxygen, which are four components that most likely could be present in higher concentrations in biogas than in natural gas. The calculations laid the grounds for the Danish national requirements for the acceptable oxygen content in upgraded biogas injected into the natural gas grid. Analysis of the corrosion mechanisms and reaction rates showed that the corrosion rate is very dependent on whether water is present in the liquid phase. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the International Gas Union Research Conference (IGRC 2014) (Copenhagen, Denmark 9/17-19/2014).


Schweitzer J.,Danish Gas Technology Center | Kristensen P.G.,Danish Gas Technology Center
International Gas Research Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

In 2013-2014, Danish Gas Centre (DGC) has been working at evaluating as accurately as possible the overall real NOx emissions from domestic gas boilers (power below 120 kw) on the Danish market and at foreseeing their evolution. The results of the work will be used for the discussion of the actual taxation of NOx emissions of appliances in Denmark. Tests at DGC are performed using natural gas from the grid and with pure CH4, thus data are gathered to model the impact on NOx of gas quality change. The emission factor for 2012 for Denmark is about 28 g/GJ, and it is continuously decreasing with the replacement of older technologies. A further reduction of the emission factor will come from the new Ecodesign regulation that will impose rather severe limits to NOx emissions of gas boilers. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the International Gas Union Research Conference (Copenhagen, Denmark 9/17-19/2014).


Stamate E.,Technical University of Denmark | Chen W.,Technical University of Denmark | Jorgensen L.,Danish Gas Technology Center | Jensen T.K.,Danish Gas Technology Center | And 2 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2010

NOx reduction of flue gas by plasma-generated ozone was investigated in pilot test experiments on an industrial power plant running on natural gas. Reduction rates higher than 95% have been achieved for a molar ratio O3:NOx slightly below two. Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy were used for spatial measurements of stable molecules and radicals along the reduction reactor. Reactions of O3 injected in the flue gas in the reduction reactor were also modeled. Experiments are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The operation costs for NOx reduction were estimated based on field tests measurements. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


De Valladares M.R.,IEA HIA | Jensen J.K.,Danish Gas Technology Center
WHEC 2012 Conference Proceedings - 19th World Hydrogen Energy Conference | Year: 2012

The International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (IEA HIA) is the world's largest and longest-lived cooperative organization in hydrogen research. It offers researchers an established, global network and acts as a catalyst and framework for collaboration. The IEA HIA's core business is hydrogen R,D&D. Our vision is a hydrogen future based on a clean sustainable energy supply of global proportions that plays a key role in all sectors of the economy. This paper provides an overview of the IEA HIA collaboration and our eleven (11) current/closing tasks, emphasizing the role of research and analysis that enables hydrogen energy solutions. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Schweitzer J.,Danish Gas Technology Center | Cagnon F.,GDF SUEZ
International Gas Research Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

The growing importance of LNG, the liberalisation of energy markets, the security of supply are among the factors that make us able to take future variation of gas quality for granted. The European gas industry has identified that gas quality specification would need harmonization to allow for improved interoperability already in 2001. A first step was achieved with the publication of the EASEE-gas Common Business Practice on gas quality in 2005. However this work didn't address the issues related to combustion parameter. Thus the European Commission has launched investigations on acceptable harmonised limits for H gas quality in EU regarding combustion parameters and primarily the Wobbe Index. This study will be used as main input for the work of CEN (Comite Europeen de Normalisation i.e. the European Standardisation Organisation) and should result in a standard for natural gas quality within the next 3 years. The paper will present the state of play at the beginning of the exercise, with gas quality specification being specified at a national level. Then it will present the work conducted by Marcogaz and EASEE-gas up to the subsequent introduction of the standardisation work launched by the European Commission. The paper will also bring details on the investigations carried out in Europe in order to quantify the impact of future changes in gas quality ranges distributed in the EU (GASQUAL project).


Schweitzer J.,Danish Gas Technology Center | Cagnon F.,GDF SUEZ
International Gas Union World Gas Conference Papers | Year: 2012

The growing importance of LNG, the liberalisation of energy markets, the security of supply are among the factors that make us able to take future variation of gas quality for granted. The European gas industry has identified that gas quality specification would need harmonisation to allow for improved interoperability already in 2001. A first step was achieved with the publication of the EASEE-gas Common Business Practice on gas quality in 2005. However this work didn't address the issues related to combustion parameter. Thus the European Commission has launched investigations on acceptable harmonised limits for H gas quality in EU regarding combustion parameters and primarily the Wobbe Index. This study is now used as main input for the work of CEN (Comite Européen de Normalisation i.e. the European Standardisation Organisation) and should result in a standard for natural gas quality within the next 3 years. The paper presents the state of play at the beginning of the exercise, with gas quality specification being specified at a national level. Then it will present the work conducted by Marcogaz and EASEE-gas up to the subsequent introduction of the standardisation work launched by the European Commission. Finally, the paper will bring details on the investigations carried out in Europe in order to quantify the impact of future changes in gas quality ranges distributed in the EU (GASQUAL project).


Wagner A.Y.,Technical University of Denmark | Livbjerg H.,Technical University of Denmark | Kristensen P.G.,Danish Gas Technology Center | Glarborg P.,Technical University of Denmark
Combustion Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The authors experimentally studied the formation of submicron particles from a domestic gas cooker in a compartment free from external particle sources. The effects of fuel (methane, natural gas, odorant-free natural gas), primary aeration, flow rate, and fuel sulphur content on particle emissions were investigated. The experiments confirmed reports from literature that blue burning flames of domestic gas cookers emit submicron particles. The particle number concentrations varied in the range 103-106particles/cm3, depending on the fuel, flow rate, and primary air addition. The diameters of the emitted particles were found to have a mean value of about 7nm for partially premixed flames, increasing to 10nm for nonpremixed flames. The quantity of primary air had a strong impact on the particle emissions, showing a minimum at a primary aeration level of 60-65%. Presence of sulphur in small quantities may enhance particle formation under some conditions, but results were not conclusive. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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