Puig-Arnavat M.,Technical University of Denmark |
Sogaard M.,Technical University of Denmark |
Hjuler K.,FLSmidth, Inc. |
Hjuler K.,Danish Gas Technology Center |
And 3 more authors.
Energy | Year: 2015
The present paper describes the integration of oxygen membranes in cement plants both from an energy, exergy and economic point of view. Different configurations for oxygen enrichment of the tertiary air for combustion in the pre-calciner and full oxy-fuel combustion in both pre-calciner and kiln are examined. The economic figures of merit are compared with those from a standard cryogenic plant. Both oxygen enriched air and full oxy-fuel cases allow for an increase in clinker production, use of alternative fuels as well as on-site electricity production. In addition, the full oxy-fuel cases generate a concentrated CO2 source that can be used for enhanced oil recovery, in combination with biomass gasification and electrolysis for synthesis gas production, or possibly sequestered. The cases with oxygen enriched air provide very promising economic figures of merit with discounted payback periods slightly higher than one year. The full oxy-fuel cases have a discounted payback period of approximately 2.3 years assuming a CO2 selling price of 35 US$/ton. The sensitivity analysis of full oxy-fuel cases clearly shows that for the discounted payback period, the most sensitive parameters are the CO2 price and the clinker selling price. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
De Valladares M.R.,IEA HIA |
Jensen J.K.,Danish Gas Technology Center
WHEC 2012 Conference Proceedings - 19th World Hydrogen Energy Conference | Year: 2012
The International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (IEA HIA) is the world's largest and longest-lived cooperative organization in hydrogen research. It offers researchers an established, global network and acts as a catalyst and framework for collaboration. The IEA HIA's core business is hydrogen R,D&D. Our vision is a hydrogen future based on a clean sustainable energy supply of global proportions that plays a key role in all sectors of the economy. This paper provides an overview of the IEA HIA collaboration and our eleven (11) current/closing tasks, emphasizing the role of research and analysis that enables hydrogen energy solutions. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Schweitzer J.,Danish Gas Technology Center |
Cagnon F.,GDF SUEZ
International Gas Research Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011
The growing importance of LNG, the liberalisation of energy markets, the security of supply are among the factors that make us able to take future variation of gas quality for granted. The European gas industry has identified that gas quality specification would need harmonization to allow for improved interoperability already in 2001. A first step was achieved with the publication of the EASEE-gas Common Business Practice on gas quality in 2005. However this work didn't address the issues related to combustion parameter. Thus the European Commission has launched investigations on acceptable harmonised limits for H gas quality in EU regarding combustion parameters and primarily the Wobbe Index. This study will be used as main input for the work of CEN (Comite Europeen de Normalisation i.e. the European Standardisation Organisation) and should result in a standard for natural gas quality within the next 3 years. The paper will present the state of play at the beginning of the exercise, with gas quality specification being specified at a national level. Then it will present the work conducted by Marcogaz and EASEE-gas up to the subsequent introduction of the standardisation work launched by the European Commission. The paper will also bring details on the investigations carried out in Europe in order to quantify the impact of future changes in gas quality ranges distributed in the EU (GASQUAL project).
Graf T.,IRD Fuel Cells |
Iskov H.,Danish Gas Technology Center |
Koch B.,DONG Energy
International Gas Research Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014
To achieve the Danish goal of 100% renewable energy by 2050, it is absolutely necessary to focus on conversion between different energy sources and on the opportunity for storing large amounts of energy. The natural gas grid and electrolysis play a crucial role. Power from wind and solar can be converted by electrolysis into hydrogen which can be stored in the gas grid. If the hydrogen impact causes damage to the material, the damage may not be visible until the material has been exposed to hydrogen over a long period of time. On project completion, the projects partners will know how the gas system is to be maintained in the future and how a reliable green gas system can still be ensured. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the International Gas Union Research Conference (Copenhagen, Denmark 9/17-19/2014).
Wagner A.Y.,Technical University of Denmark |
Livbjerg H.,Technical University of Denmark |
Kristensen P.G.,Danish Gas Technology Center |
Glarborg P.,Technical University of Denmark
Combustion Science and Technology | Year: 2010
The authors experimentally studied the formation of submicron particles from a domestic gas cooker in a compartment free from external particle sources. The effects of fuel (methane, natural gas, odorant-free natural gas), primary aeration, flow rate, and fuel sulphur content on particle emissions were investigated. The experiments confirmed reports from literature that blue burning flames of domestic gas cookers emit submicron particles. The particle number concentrations varied in the range 103-106particles/cm3, depending on the fuel, flow rate, and primary air addition. The diameters of the emitted particles were found to have a mean value of about 7nm for partially premixed flames, increasing to 10nm for nonpremixed flames. The quantity of primary air had a strong impact on the particle emissions, showing a minimum at a primary aeration level of 60-65%. Presence of sulphur in small quantities may enhance particle formation under some conditions, but results were not conclusive. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.