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Moller R.S.,Danish Epilepsy Center Dianalund | Moller R.S.,Copenhagen University | Moller R.S.,University of Southern Denmark | Jensen L.R.,University of Greifswald | And 30 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2014

Submicroscopic duplications along the long arm of the X-chromosome with known phenotypic consequences are relatively rare events. The clinical features resulting from such duplications are various, though they often include intellectual disability, microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia, hypogonadism and feeding difficulties. Female carriers are often phenotypically normal or show a similar but milder phenotype, as in most cases the X-chromosome harbouring the duplication is subject to inactivation. Xq28, which includes MECP2 is the major locus for submicroscopic X-chromosome duplications, whereas duplications in Xq25 and Xq26 have been reported in only a few cases. Using genome-wide array platforms we identified overlapping interstitial Xq25q26 duplications ranging from 0.2 to 4.76 Mb in eight unrelated families with in total five affected males and seven affected females. All affected males shared a common phenotype with intrauterine- and postnatal growth retardation and feeding difficulties in childhood. Three had microcephaly and two out of five suffered from epilepsy. In addition, three males had a distinct facial appearance with congenital bilateral ptosis and large protruding ears and two of them showed a cleft palate. The affected females had various clinical symptoms similar to that of the males with congenital bilateral ptosis in three families as most remarkable feature. Comparison of the gene content of the individual duplications with the respective phenotypes suggested three critical regions with candidate genes (AIFM1, RAB33A, GPC3 and IGSF1) for the common phenotypes, including candidate loci for congenital bilateral ptosis, small head circumference, short stature, genital and digital defects. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Carvill G.L.,University of Washington | Weckhuysen S.,Neurogenetics Group | Weckhuysen S.,University of Antwerp | Weckhuysen S.,Epilepsy Center Kempenhaeghe | And 28 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine the genes underlying Dravet syndrome in patients who do not have an SCN1A mutation on routine testing. Methods: We performed whole-exome sequencing in 13 SCN1A-negative patients with Dravet syndrome and targeted resequencing in 67 additional patients to identify new genes for this disorder. Results: We detected disease-causing mutations in 2 novel genes for Dravet syndrome, with mutations in GABRA1 in 4 cases and STXBP1 in 3. Furthermore, we identified 3 patients with previously undetected SCN1A mutations, suggesting that SCN1A mutations occur in even more than the currently accepted ~75% of cases. Conclusions: We show that GABRA1 and STXBP1 make a significant contribution to Dravet syndrome after SCN1A abnormalities have been excluded. Our results have important implications for diagnostic testing, clinical management, and genetic counseling of patients with this devastating disorder and their families. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology. Source

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