Nielsen K.,Technical University of Denmark |
Sorensen L.S.,Technical University of Denmark |
Khan S.A.,Technical University of Denmark |
Spada G.,Urbino University |
And 3 more authors.
International Association of Geodesy Symposia
Constraining glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) i.e. the Earth’s viscoelastic response to past ice changes, is an important task, because GIA is a significant correction in gravitybased ice sheet mass balance estimates. Here, we investigate how temporal variations in the observed and modeled crustal displacements due to the Earth’s response to ongoing ice mass changes can contribute to the process of constraining GIA. We use mass change grids of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) derived from NASA’s high resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data in three overlapping time spans covering the period 2004–2009 to estimate temporal variations in the elastic response due to present day ice mass loss. The modeled crustal displacements (elastic + GIA) are compared with GPS time series from five permanent sites (KELY, KULU, QAQ1, THU2, and SCOR). We find, that the modeled pattern of elastic crustal displacements shows pronounced variation during the observation period, where an increase in elastic displacement is found at the northwest coast of Greenland, while a decrease is found at the southeast coast. This pattern of temporal changes is supported by the GPS observations.We find, that the temporal behavior of the ICESat-based modeled elastic response agrees well with the GPS observations at the sites KELY, QAQ1, and SCOR. This suggests, that our elastic models are able to resolve the temporal changes in the observed uplift, which indicates that the elastic uplift models are reliable at these sites. Therefore, we conclude that these sites are useful for constraining GIA. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014. Source
Sasgen I.,German Research Center for Geosciences |
van den Broeke M.,University Utrecht |
Bamber J.L.,University of Bristol |
Rignot E.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory |
And 8 more authors.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Within the last decade, the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its surroundings have experienced record high surface temperatures (Mote, 2007; Box et al., 2010), ice sheet melt extent (Fettweis et al., 2011) and record-low summer sea-ice extent (Nghiem et al., 2007). Using three independent data sets, we derive, for the first time, consistent ice-mass trends and temporal variations within seven major drainage basins from gravity fields from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al., 2004), surface-ice velocities from Inteferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR; Rignot and Kanagaratnam, 2006) together with output of the regional atmospheric climate modelling (RACMO2/GR; Ettema et al., 2009), and surface-elevation changes from the Ice, cloud and land elevation satellite (ICESat; Sørensen et al., 2011). We show that changing ice discharge (D), surface melting and subsequent run-off (M/R) and precipitation (P) all contribute, in a complex and regionally variable interplay, to the increasingly negative mass balance of the GrIS observed within the last decade. Interannual variability in P along the northwest and west coasts of the GrIS largely explains the apparent regional mass loss increase during 2002-2010, and obscures increasing M/R and D since the 1990s. In winter 2002/2003 and 2008/2009, accumulation anomalies in the east and southeast temporarily outweighed the losses by M/R and D that prevailed during 2003-2008, and after summer 2010. Overall, for all basins of the GrIS, the decadal variability of anomalies in P, M/R and D between 1958 and 2010 (w.r.t. 1961-1990) was significantly exceeded by the regional trends observed during the GRACE period (2002-2011). © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source
Stove B.,University of Bergen |
Ljungqvist F.C.,University of Stockholm |
Thejll P.,Danish Climate Center
Journal of Climate
Are temperature proxy records linear recorders of past temperature conditions? A statistical test for linearity is applied to 15 millennial-long proxy records with an annual resolution that was shown to significantly respond to Northern Hemisphere annual mean temperature selected from a collection of 30 proxies. The test, based on generalized additive modeling, shows that most of the proxies can indeed be shown to be linear functions of annual mean temperature, but two proxy records do not appear to have a linear relationship with temperature-this supports the assumption of linearity in most climate reconstruction work. The method tests for nonlinearity in a proxy relative to the group of proxies with which it is being used together. The robustness of the results is tested, and it was found that the results are stable to the choice of proxies. The linearity-testing method is quite general and could in the future be used for larger and more extensive sets of proxies. © 2012 American Meteorological Society. Source
Bolch T.,University of Zurich |
Bolch T.,TU Dresden |
Sandberg Sorensen L.,Technical University of Denmark |
Simonsen S.B.,Copenhagen University |
And 6 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters
The recently finalized inventory of Greenland's glaciers and ice caps (GIC) allows for the first time to determine the mass changes of the GIC separately from the ice sheet using space-borne laser altimetry data. Corrections for firn compaction and density that are based on climatic conditions are applied for the conversion from volume to mass changes. The GIC which are clearly separable from the icesheet (i.e., have a distinct ice divide or no connection) lost 27.9 ± 10.7 Gt a-1 or 0.08 ± 0.03 mm a-1 sea-level equivalent (SLE) between October 2003 and March 2008. All GIC (including those with strong but hydrologically separable connections) lost 40.9 ± 16.5 Gt a-1 (0.12 ± 0.05 mm a-1 SLE). This is a significant fraction (∼14 or 20%) of the reported overall mass loss of Greenland and up to 10% of the estimated contribution from the world's GIC to sea level rise. The loss was highest in southeastern and lowest in northern Greenland. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source
Steen-Larsen H.C.,Copenhagen University |
Steen-Larsen H.C.,University of Colorado at Boulder |
Johnsen S.J.,Copenhagen University |
Masson-Delmotte V.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center |
And 23 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
We present here surface water vapor isotopic measurements conducted from June to August 2010 at the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Drilling Project) camp, NW Greenland (77.45° N, 51.05° W, 2484 m a.s.l.). Measurements were conducted at 9 different heights from 0.1 m to 13.5 m above the snow surface using two different types of cavity-enhanced near-infrared absorption spectroscopy analyzers. For each instrument specific protocols were developed for calibration and drift corrections. The inter-comparison of corrected results from different instruments reveals excellent reproducibility, stability, and precision with a standard deviations of ∼0.23‰ for δ18O and ∼1.4‰ for δD. Diurnal and intraseasonal variations show strong relationships between changes in local surface humidity and water vapor isotopic composition, and with local and synoptic weather conditions. This variability probably results from the interplay between local moisture fluxes, linked with firn-air exchanges, boundary layer dynamics, and large-scale moisture advection. Particularly remarkable are several episodes characterized by high (> 40 ‰) surface water vapor deuterium excess. Air mass back-trajectory calculations from atmospheric analyses and watv e er tagging in the LMDZiso (Laboratory of Meteorology Dynamics Zoom-isotopic) atmospheric model reveal that these events are associated with predominant Arctic air mass origin. The analysis suggests that high deuterium excess leveo l ls are a result of strong kinetic fractionation during eva aporation at the sea-ice margin. © Author(s) 2013. Source