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Copenhagen, Denmark

Taagholt J.,Danish Arctic Institute | Brooks K.,Museum of Natural History of Denmark
Polar Record | Year: 2016

This paper presents a brief history of Greenland which sets the scene for unprecedented recent developments, both materially and politically. After the war, in 1953, the political status of Greenland was changed from colony to an integral part of Denmark. Greenland gained home rule [Hjemmestyre] in 1979 and greater devolution to self rule [Selvstyre] in 2009. The population is becoming centralised, increasingly resembling consumer societies worldwide. In recent years the economy has been mainly based upon fish and mining, although at present there is no active mine and the economy is declining, making the country increasingly dependent on subsidies from Denmark. The former president recently predicted that Greenland would leave Denmark within her life-time, a view based upon her vision of the development of a rich mining industry. Additionally she established a reconciliation committee to examine supposed ill-treatment by Denmark. The present situation and the unrealistic expectations of huge production of different minerals are discussed based upon accepted predictions of mineral resources, world market prices, logistic problems (lack of infrastructure and tiny population) and environmental concerns. During the past year, a more realistic and less confrontational debate on the relations between Denmark and Greenland has been evident. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 Source

Vanggaard L.,Danish Arctic Institute | Kuklane K.,Lund University | Holmer I.,Lund University | Smolander J.,Lund University
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging | Year: 2012

The arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) in the distal parts of the extremities play a significant role in the heat exchange with the environment. The aim of the study was to examine the thermal responses to whole-body cooling in air, and especially the behaviour of finger skin temperature (Tf, rich in AVAs). Eight young men sat in minimal clothing at 32°C air temperature (Ta), which was then lowered gradually to 13°C in 100 min. In the beginning of cooling, Tf was high and fluctuating, and then suddenly exhibited a rapid fall, while temperatures in other skin sites fell fairly linearly along decreasing Ta to the end of cooling. During the period from start to the rapid fall in Tf, rectal temperature decreased from 37·4°C (SD 0·2) to 37·2°C (0·2), mean skin temperature (Tsk) from 34·6°C (0·5) to 31·2°C (2·0) and whole-body thermal sensation from 'slightly warm/warm' to 'slightly cool/cold'. The start of the steep fall in Tf varied considerably between individuals in terms of time (2-75 min), Ta (16·7-32·0°C) and Tsk (28·8-34·7°C). On the other hand, the range of Tf at that point was narrower (32·1-35·8°C). The findings stress the importance of taking into account the distal skin temperatures in thermoregulatory studies in addition to the ordinarily used more proximal and central skin sites. Also, it might be advisable to start such experiments with relatively high and fluctuating Tf to guarantee that the thermal state of the subject is well defined. © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Source

Karaki W.,American University of Beirut | Ghaddar N.,American University of Beirut | Ghali K.,American University of Beirut | Kuklane K.,Lund University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Thermal Sciences | Year: 2013

The arterio-venous anastomoses (AVA) play a major role in the blood circulation in the peripheral body parts. In this work, the segmental bioheat model of Salloum et al. [1] is improved to accurately predict skin blood flow rate in the hands and fingers, and the local and overall human thermal responses in transient environments. The improvements in the model include: 1) extending the artery tree to include the arterial branching to the five fingers; 2) modeling and distribution of the blood flow between the deep and superficial veins in the peripherals; 3) adjusting arteries' radii during dilation and constriction; 4) innovative modeling of AVA of the fingers. The model focus is on the accurate blood flow calculation to the different body segments proposing a better blood control mechanism through relating the arterial tree radii as well as the AVA control mechanism to cardiac output. The skin blood flow and digits' dynamic thermal response predicted by the model were compared with published experimental values on body core and skin temperatures and local skin temperatures of fingers. Good agreement was obtained with experimentally reported values on average skin, core, and finger skin temperature response of subjects exposed to gradual decrease in air temperature from 32.3 °C to 13 °C. The new integrated AVA model of the fingers with the bioheat model is capable of predicting digits' dynamics thermal response with better accuracy than some previous models while also incorporating the complex central and local thermoregulatory functions. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source

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