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Chowdhury S.,University of Southern Denmark | Chowdhury S.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Sandberg M.,Danish Agriculture and Food Council | Themudo G.E.,University of Southern Denmark | Ersboll A.K.,University of Southern Denmark
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

Data from the Quality Assurance System in Danish Broiler Production (KIK system) were analyzed to identify within farm biosecurity- and management- related risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler flocks. In the study, data from 2,835 flocks originating from 187 farms in the time period of December 2009 to November 2010 were included. The PCR test results of fecal samples collected on socks revealed that 14% of the Danish broiler flocks were positive to Campylobacter during the study period. Of the positive flocks, 55% were positive during summer time and the positive flocks during summer time were related to areas where clustering of infected farms was identified in previous conducted studies. The median number of people working in or entering broiler houses was 2 (from 1 to 7). The median slaughter age of Danish broiler flocks was 35 d (from 31-61 d). A multivariable logistic regression model with a random effect of farm was performed. The analysis revealed that flocks had a higher risk of acquiring positive infection status during summer time: odds ratio = 12.59 (95% CI: 6.79-23.36) and when more than one person entered the broiler house: odds ratio = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.19-3.84). Furthermore, there was a higher risk of a positive infection status if the test result of the farm for the previous flock was positive: odds ratio = 1.80 (95% CI: 1.22-2.63), if the broiler houses were built before and during 1990: odds ratio = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.17-2.18), and if the average slaughter age of the birds was more than 35 d: odds ratio = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.02-1.76). © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Ciccolini M.,University of Edinburgh | Dahl J.,Danish Agriculture and Food Council | Chase-Topping M.E.,University of Edinburgh | Woolhouse M.E.J.,University of Edinburgh
Epidemics | Year: 2012

Animal trade in industrialised livestock-production systems creates a complex, heterogeneous, contact network that shapes between-herd transmission of infectious diseases. We report the results of a simple mathematical model that explores patterns of spread and persistence of livestock-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in the Danish pig-industry associated with this trade network. Simulations show that LA-MRSA can become endemic sustained by animal movements alone. Despite the extremely low predicted endemic prevalence, eradication may be difficult, and decreasing within-farm prevalence, or the time it takes a LA-MRSA positive farm to recover a negative status, fails to break long-term persistence. Our results suggest that a low level of non-movement induced transmission strongly affects MRSA dynamics, increasing endemic prevalence and probability of persistence. We also compare the model-predicted risk of 291 individual farms becoming MRSA positive, with results from a recent Europe-wide survey of LA-MRSA in holdings with breeding pigs, and find a significant correlation between contact-network connectivity properties and the model-estimated risk measure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Jensen V.F.,Technological University of Denmark | Enoe C.,Technological University of Denmark | Wachmann H.,Larix Inc. | Nielsen E.O.,Danish Agriculture and Food Council
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

A retrospective cohort study was performed on 130 pig herds in Denmark, to assess the effect of PMWS on the use of antimicrobial drug. The study comprised 65 herds diagnosed with PMWS during 2003-2004, and matched by the veterinary practitioner with 65 herds free from PMWS. Information on antimicrobial use 1 year before and 1 year after the diagnosis was achieved from the National Prescription Medicine Monitoring Database, VetStat, and summarized on quarter within age group and herd. The multiple linear regression analysis comprised antimicrobial use as the outcome variable with (1) quarter relative to diagnosis of PMWS in the positive herd (same date for the negative match), (2) diagnosis of PMWS (same date used for matched PMWS(-) herd), (3) season and (4) temporal trend as fixed effects. Relative to the unaffected herds, the antimicrobial use in the sow units in the PMWS(+) herds was elevated significantly by 35% in the last quarter and 43% in the fourth quarter before positive diagnosis in the herds (p<0.05). In weaner pigs, the antimicrobial use increased significantly two quarters before, and one quarter after the positive diagnosis, by 68%, 91% and 124% respectively. In weaner pigs, effects were seen of herd size and season. The study support that increased morbidity occur for an extended period prior to the diagnosis of PMWS, both in the sow units and the weaner pig units and further indicate that the syndrome cease after the diagnosis, with a decrease in need for antimicrobial treatment. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Chowdhury S.,University of Southern Denmark | Chowdhury S.,Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Themudo G.E.,University of Southern Denmark | Sandberg M.,Danish Agriculture and Food Council | Ersboll A.K.,University of Southern Denmark
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2013

Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of Campylobacter in the Danish broiler population. In this study, we observed a non-random temporal occurrence of Campylobacter, with high prevalence during summer and low during winter. Significant spatio-temporal clusters were identified in the same areas in the summer months from 2007 to 2009. Range of influence between broiler farms were estimated at distances of 9·6 km and 13·5 km in different years. Identification of areas and time with greater risk indicates variable presence of risk factors with space and time. Implementation of safety measures on farms within high-risk clusters during summer could have an impact in reducing prevalence. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

Baptista F.M.,Copenhagen University | Alban L.,Danish Agriculture and Food Council | Nielsen L.R.,Copenhagen University | Domingos I.,CIISA | And 2 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2010

Salmonella surveillance-and-control programs in pigs are highly resource demanding, so alternative cost-effective approaches are desirable. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a tool for predicting the Salmonella test status in pig herds based on herd information collected from 108 industrial farrow-to-finish pig herds in Portugal. A questionnaire including known risk factors for Salmonella was used. A factor analysis model was developed to identify relevant factors that were then tested for association with Salmonella status. Three factors were identified and labelled: general biosecurity (factor 1), herd size (factor 2) and sanitary gap implementation (factor 3). Based on the loadings in factor 1 and factor 3, herds were classified according to their biosecurity practices. In total, 59% of the herds had a good level of biosecurity (interpreted as a loading below zero in factor 1) and 37% of the farms had good biosecurity and implemented sanitary gap (loading below zero in factor 1 and loading above zero in factor 3). This implied that they, among other things, implemented preventive measures for visitors and workers entering the herd, controlled biological vectors, had hygiene procedures in place, water quality assessment, and sanitary gap in the fattening and growing sections. In total, 50 herds were tested for Salmonella. Logistic regression analysis showed that factor 1 was significantly associated with Salmonella test status (P = 0.04). Herds with poor biosecurity had a higher probability of testing Salmonella positive compared with herds with good biosecurity. This study shows the potential for using herd information to classify herds according to their Salmonella status in the absence of good testing options. The method might be used as a potentially cost-effective tool for future development of risk-based approaches to surveillance, targeting interventions to high-risk herds or differentiating sampling strategies in herds with different levels of infection. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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