Velsen, Netherlands
Velsen, Netherlands

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Schrama F.N.H.,Technical University of Delft | Schrama F.N.H.,Tata Steel | Beunder E.M.,Tata Steel | Van den Berg B.,Danieli Corus BV | And 2 more authors.
Ironmaking and Steelmaking | Year: 2017

Sulphur removal in the ironmaking and oxygen steelmaking process is reviewed. A sulphur balance is made for the steelmaking process of Tata Steel IJmuiden, the Netherlands. There are four stages where sulphur can be removed: in the blast furnace (BF), during hot metal (HM) pretreatment, in the converter and during the secondary metallurgy (SM) treatment. For sulphur removal a low oxygen activity and a basic slag are required. In the BF typically 90% of the sulphur is removed; still, the HM contains about 0.03% of sulphur. Different HM desulphurisation processes are used worldwide. With co-injection or the Kanbara reactor, sulphur concentrations below 0.001% are reached. Basic slag helps desulphurisation in the converter. However, sulphur increase is not uncommon in the converter due to high oxygen activity and sulphur input via scrap and additions. For low sulphur concentrations SM desulphurisation, with a decreased oxygen activity and a basic slag, is always required. © 2017 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining. Published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Institute


Van Laar R.,Danieli Corus BV | Tsalapatis J.,Ironmaking
Iron and Steel Technology | Year: 2013

The fourth campaign of OneSteel Whyalla Blast Furnace started with advanced copper stave coolers in the bosh, belly and lower stack, high-grade silicon carbide and copper plate coolers in the lower bosh, and a high-grade mullite tuyere band. The design included a lower bosh steel shell expansion joint, but no matching refractory expansion joint. The bosh copper stave coolers suffered from erosion after three years of operational life, soon followed by bosh refractory lining and cooling plate failures and serious bosh shell and expansion joint hot spots. The major disruption to operational stability and high risk to safety were caused by bosh hot spots and cooling plate/expansion joint failures. A large number of regular bosh grouting stops were performed, while leaking copper stave coolers required several shutdowns for grouting and installation of internal sleeves. Trials to install copper cigar coolers also took place. The erosion of the bosh copper stave coolers is attributed to descending burden and lack of accretion protection of the bare copper hot face. The copper stave coolers have limited accretion anchoring functionality, and the bosh conical shape contributes to high-pressure loadings, which increase the erosion rates. There was no evidence of high-temperature softening or melting effects of the copper as all instrumentation data confirmed outstanding performance of the water cooling system. The lower bosh silicon carbide refractory cannot cope with high temperatures unless appropriate expansion provisions are utilized. Silicon carbide compressibility is very low, and this could cause cracking at temperatures around 200°C. The silicon carbide stress levels were high due to vertical constraints by the mullite tuyere band and bosh copper stave coolers. Also, the steel shell expansion joint is positioned at a critical elevation. Lower bosh silicon carbide refractory introduces a risk with regard to stress cracking, leading to loss of the refractory, and exposes the copper plate coolers and shell plate to high temperatures. The design caused high stresses and cracking of the copper plate coolers close to the shell. With the loss of refractory, the lower bosh steel shell expansion joint became exposed to high temperatures causing significant deformation and cracking. Eventually, the lower bosh expansion joint failures led to the decision toward a long-term campaign extension repair strategy and justification. A Hoogovens tuyere band, bosh and belly design was implemented, as many similar designs have been installed at comparable blast furnaces with a bosh expansion joint. It was decided to install new copper stave coolers in the lower stack and include an additional hot face lining of graphite and silicon carbide to provide a smooth transition of the belly Hoogovens lining to the middle stack cast-iron stave coolers. The post-mortem analysis confirmed the hypothesis regarding failures of the copper stave coolers and the lower bosh. This analysis also confirmed the decision to combine the Hoogovens tuyere band, bosh and belly together with the advanced lower stack copper stave coolers, as the observed lower stack copper stave cooler erosion was limited.


Schrama F.,Danieli Corus BV | Van Den Berg B.,Danieli Corus BV | Van Hattum G.,Danieli Corus BV
Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking, ICS 2015 | Year: 2015

The current market demands desulphurized steel. Steelmakers worldwide agree that the most efficient and cost effective solution in BOF steelmaking is to desulphurize the hot metal between the blast furnace and converter. Various methods are currently in use for hot metal desulphurization. Among these methods the Kanbara Reactor (KR) process (using only lime as a reagent), the Magnesium mono-injection process (using only magnesium as a reagent; also known as the Ukraina Desmag process) and the coinjection process (using magnesium and lime/CaC2 as reagents) are worldwide the most popular. These three hot metal desulphurization methods are compared based on metallurgy, efficiency, costs and overall performance. Both available data from literature and experience from Danieli Corus engineers is used for this study. The KR process is able to reach low sulphur concentrations (> 10ppm) in hot metal and has lower reagent costs. However, due to higher Fe-loss and heavy wear the KR process has the highest operational costs. The Magnesium mono-injection process is very fast due to the use of the reactive magnesium as reagent. Major problems with resulphurization (sulphur levels below 50ppm cannot be reached) and the violence of the process made that this process (which originates from the former USSR) could never get a firm foothold in the western steel industry. The co-injection process with magnesium and lime proves to be able to combine the best of both worlds. It can reach low sulphur concentrations and desulphurize fast. Co-injection is also the most flexible cost effective method in the market. Therefore this process is still viewed as the standard practice in the world of BOF steelmaking.


Van Laar R.,Danieli Corus BV | Engel E.,Danieli Corus BV
6th Int. Congress on the Science and Technology of Ironmaking 2012, ICSTI 2012 - Including Proceedings from the 42nd Ironmaking and Raw Materials Seminar, and the 13th Brazilian Symp. on Iron Ore | Year: 2012

Modern blast furnace ironmaking technology must comply with increasing environmental permitting and legislation and the blast furnace industry is simultaneously facing unreliable raw materials quality as well as high and volatile raw material prices due to high global demand. These challenges may be overcome by minimizing coke and energy consumption. This includes high pulverized coal injection, efficient gas cleaning and hot blast system technologies and a long campaign life blast furnace design. These technologies are discussed in the paper.


Paramanathan B.K.,Aperam S.A | Engel E.,Danieli Corus BV
6th Int. Congress on the Science and Technology of Ironmaking 2012, ICSTI 2012 - Including Proceedings from the 42nd Ironmaking and Raw Materials Seminar, and the 13th Brazilian Symp. on Iron Ore | Year: 2012

The injection of reduction agents via the tuyeres is now common practice world-wide in blast furnace operation. The benefits of reduced coke consumption and increased production due to the removal of nitrogen from the blast with increasing oxygen enrichment have been recognized by the industry. In choosing an injection system, the user faces a choice of designs with fundamental differences, the most important of which is the type of flow control. Among the most common systems in the industry, some feature active flow control e.g. through the application of throttling valves, whereas flow control in the Danieli Corus system is based on physical principles such as uniform pressure drop across injection lines. For an optimized blast furnace process, production rates in front of the individual tuyeres should be balanced, and the production in front of a tuyere depends on the local coal to gas ratio. This article discusses how various designs perform in this respect.


Klut P.,Danieli Corus BV | Turco T.,Danieli Corus BV | Ewalts W.,Danieli Corus BV | Dupon E.,Danieli Corus BV
TMS Light Metals | Year: 2016

There was an existing cooling tower at Alcoa Aluminerie de Becancour that had to be replaced by a new improved type to cope with process conditions which had changed since its inception in 1985. The increased volume of Anode Bake Furnace (ABF) fiimes, altered pitch burning conditions, anode recipe and the rise in elements such as vanadium and sulfur in the petroleum cokes demanded a larger modern Conditioning Tower design. Danieli Corus (DC) was contracted by the owner's engineer, Hatch Ltd, to design, supply and deliver the new tower to Aluminerie de Becancour Incorporated (ABI).


Patent
Danieli Corus BV | Date: 2015-04-08

An apparatus (1) is disclosed for the removal of gasses from electrolysis cells (3) by suction comprising a branch duct (5) for each electrolysis cell, a ductwork (4) connecting the branch ducts to a gas treatment centre (9), a central suction fan (11) providing a gas flow in the ducts, and a heat exchanger (15) arranged in the gas flow. The heat exchanger comprises one or more heat exchanger elements (17) in at least one of the branch ducts and the ductwork. One or more of the heat exchanger elements are removably arranged in the at least one of the branch ducts and the ductwork and/or the heat exchanger comprises a plate heat exchanger (15) comprising one or more heat exchanger plates (17).


Patent
Danieli Corus BV | Date: 2014-04-25

A method of conditioning particulate material and/or a gas is provided, comprising the steps of: feeding an amount of particulate material up to a filling level into in an inner volume of a silo having silo walls, a gas inlet and a gas outlet, and generating a gas flow of a gas from the gas inlet through the particulate material to the gas outlet which comprises applying suction to the inner volume of the silo through the gas outlet, wherein the gas outlet is located in a silo wall below the filling level and covered by the particulate material. A system is also provided.


Patent
Danieli Corus BV | Date: 2014-10-29

A method of conditioning particulate material (M) and/or a gas is provided, comprising the steps of: feeding an amount of particulate material up to a filling level (L) into in an inner volume (V) of a silo (3) having silo walls (5), a gas inlet (13) and a gas outlet (11), and generating a gas flow (F) of a gas from the gas inlet through the particulate material to the gas outlet which comprises applying suction to the inner volume of the silo through the gas outlet, wherein the gas outlet is located in a silo wall below the filling level and covered by the particulate material. A system is also provided.


The invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the removal of gasses from electrolysis cells (21) by suction, the apparatus comprising a branch duct (3) for each electrolysis cell, a main duct (4) connecting the branch ducts to a gas treatment centre (5) and a central suction fan (6) providing for at least part of the suction, wherein one or more of the branch ducts are provided with supplementary suction means (8) and wherein control means (9) to control the supplementary suction means and pressure monitor means are provided, wherein the control means are adapted to control the supplementary suction means in dependence from changes in the monitored pressure with respect to a reference pressure.

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