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Dorgan J.F.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Klifa C.,Dangeard Group | Deshmukh S.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | Egleston B.L.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2013

Purpose: Breast density is strongly related to breast cancer risk, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown. Methods: Associations of reproductive and menstrual characteristics with breast density measured by magnetic resonance imaging were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 176 healthy women, 25-29 years old, using linear mixed effects models. Results: Parity was significantly inversely associated with breast density. In multivariable adjusted models that included non-reproductive variables, mean percent dense breast volume (%DBV) decreased from 20.5 % in nulliparous women to 16.0 % in parous women, while mean absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) decreased from 85.3 to 62.5 cm3. Breast density also was significantly inversely associated with the age women started using hormonal contraceptives, whereas it was significantly positively associated with duration of hormonal contraceptive use. In adjusted models, mean %DBV decreased from 21.7 % in women who started using hormones at 12-17 years of age to 14.7 % in those who started using hormones at 22-28 years of age, while mean ADBV decreased from 86.2 to 53.7 cm3. The age at which women started using hormonal contraceptives and duration of hormone use were inversely correlated, and mean %DBV increased from 15.8 % in women who used hormones for not more than 2.0 years to 22.0 % in women who used hormones for more than 8 years, while mean ADBV increased from 61.9 to 90.4 cm3 over this interval. Conclusions: Breast density in young women is inversely associated with parity and the age women started using hormonal contraceptives but positively associated with duration of hormone use. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Jung S.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Goloubeva O.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Klifa C.,Dangeard Group | LeBlanc E.S.,Kaiser Permanente | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2016

Background: Lack of association between fat intake and breast cancer risk in cohort studies might be attributed to the disregard of temporal effects during adolescence when breasts develop and are particularly sensitive to stimuli. We prospectively examined associations between adolescent fat intakes and breast density. Method: Among 177 women who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children, dietary intakes at ages 10-18 years were assessed on five occasions by 24-hour recalls and averaged. We calculated geometric mean and 95% confidence intervals for MRI-measured breast density at ages 25-29 years across quartiles of fat intake using linear mixed-effect regression. Results: Comparing women in the extreme quartiles of adolescent fat intakes, percent dense breast volume (%DBV) was positively associated with saturated fat (mean = 16.4% vs. 21.5%; Ptrend < 0.001). Conversely, %DBV was inversely associated with monounsaturated fat (25.0% vs. 15.8%; Ptrend < 0.001) and the ratio of polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat (P/S ratio; 19.1% vs. 14.3%; Ptrend < 0.001). When examining intake by pubertal stages, %DBV was inversely associated with intake of polyunsaturated fat (20.8% vs. 16.4%; Ptrend = 0.04), long-chain omega-3 fat (17.8% vs. 15.8%; Ptrend < 0.001), and P/S ratio (22.5%vs. 16.1%;Ptrend< 0.001) before menarche, but not after. These associations observed with %DBV were consistently observed with absolute dense breast volume but not with absolute nondense breast volume. Conclusions: In our study, adolescent intakes of higher saturated fat and lower mono- and polyunsaturated fat are associated with higher breast density measured approximately 15 years later. Impact: The fat subtype composition in adolescent diet may be important in early breast cancer prevention. © 2016 American Association for Cancer Research.


Pettee Gabriel K.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Klifa C.,Dangeard Group | Perez A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Kriska A.M.,University of Pittsburgh | And 3 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to examine the role of early lifetime exposure to physical activity on magnetic resonance imaging-determined breast density measures. METHODS: Associations of adolescent (high school (ages 14-17 yr) and early adulthood, post-high school (ages 18-21 yr) and past year) leisure-time physical activity, as well as a principal component score including all three estimates, were examined with percent dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) in a cross-sectional analysis of 182 healthy women, ages 25-29 yr, enrolled in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children Follow-up Study (DISC06). Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine associations after adjustment for relevant covariates for the entire analytic sample. Analyses were repeated in nulliparous women and hormonal contraceptive nonusers. RESULTS: Physical activity during high school and post-high school were not statistically significantly related to %DBV or ADBV in multivariable models. Past year physical activity was positively related to %DBV in the unadjusted and partially adjusted models (P < 0.001 and P = 0.01, respectively), which did not adjust for body mass index (BMI). After additional adjustment for childhood and early adulthood BMI, this association became nonstatistically significant. The relation between past year physical activity and ADBV was not statistically significant. These findings were similar in nonusers of hormonal contraceptives. No statistically significant relations were found in nulliparous women or between the principal component score and %DBV or ADBV. CONCLUSION: Results from this study are consistent with previous research suggesting that physical activity during adolescence and early adulthood is unrelated to breast density. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine.


Jones J.A.,Dickinson College | Jones J.A.,Messiah College | Jones J.A.,Pennsylvania State University | Hartman T.J.,Emory University | And 16 more authors.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2015

Background: Breast density is an established predictor of breast cancer risk, and there is considerable interest in associations of modifiable lifestyle factors, such as diet, with breast density. Objective: To determine whether dietary energy density (ED) is associated with percent dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) in young women. Design: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with women who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children Follow-Up Study. %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Diet was assessed by three 24-hour recalls. Dietary ED (kilocalories/gram) was calculated using three methods: food only, food and caloric beverages, and food and all beverages. Participants/setting: One hundred seventy-two women (aged 25 to 29 years) who were enrolled in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children Follow-Up Study. Participants who reported breast augmentation or reduction surgery or were pregnant or lactating within 3 months before breast density assessment were excluded. Main outcome measures: ADBV and %DBV. Statistical analyses performed: Multivariable linear mixed effects models were used. Final models were adjusted for race, smoking status, education, parity, duration of sex hormone use, whole body percent fat, childhood body mass index z score, and energy from beverages. Results: After adjustment, each 1 kcal/g unit increase in food-only ED was associated with a 25.9% (95% CI 6.2% to 56.8%) increase in %DBV (. P=0.01). Childhood body mass index z score modified the association between food-only ED and %DBV such that a significant positive association was observed only in women who were heavier as children. Food-only ED was not associated with ADBV in all women, but a borderline significant positive association was observed in women who had higher childhood body mass index z scores. Conclusions: This is the first report to suggest a potential role for dietary ED in breast density; the effects of long-term exposure to high-ED diets on breast cancer risk remain unknown. © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.


Jung S.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Stanczyk F.Z.,University of Southern California | Egleston B.L.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | Snetselaar L.G.,University of Iowa | And 7 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2015

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 180 women ages 25 to 29 years old who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children 2006 Follow-up Study. Eighty-five percent of participants attended a clinic visit during their luteal phase of menstrual cycle. Magnetic resonance imaging measured the percentage of dense breast volume (%DBV), absolute dense breast volume (ADBV), and absolute nondense breast volume (ANDBV). Multiple-linear mixed-effect regression models were used to evaluate the association of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with %DBV, ADBV, and ANDBV. Results: Testosterone was significantly positively associated with %DBV and ADBV. The multivariable geometric mean of %DBV and ADBV across testosterone quartiles increased from 16.5% to 20.3% and from 68.6 to 82.3 cm3, respectively (Ptrend ≤ 0.03). There was no association of%DBVor ADBV with estrogens, progesterone, non-SHBG-bound testosterone, or SHBG (Ptrend ≥ 0.27). Neither sex hormones nor SHBG was associated with ANDBV except progesterone; however, the progesterone result was nonsignificant in analysis restricted to women in the luteal phase. onclusions: These findings suggest a modest positive association between testosterone and breast density in young women. Impact: Hormonal influences at critical periods may contribute to morphologic differences in the breast associated with breast cancer risk later in life.Background: Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and reflects epithelial and stromal content. Breast tissue is particularly sensitive to hormonal stimuli before it fully differentiates following the first full-term pregnancy. Few studies have examined associations between sex hormones and breast density among young women. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

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