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Abramowitz Y.,Tel Aviv Medical Center | Roth A.,Tel Aviv Medical Center | Keren G.,Tel Aviv Medical Center | Isakov O.,Tel Aviv University | And 7 more authors.
Coronary Artery Disease | Year: 2016

Objectives: Most studies on the genes involved in coronary artery disease (CAD) targeted individuals with angiographically or clinically proven CAD. Focusing on highrisk individuals with normal coronary arteries (NCA) may offer novel insights into the pathogenesis of CAD. We aimed to identify genes putatively protective for development of CAD. Methods: Pooled whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on 17 patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and NCA and on 17 controls with multivessel CAD. Rare NCA-unique sequence variants were subsequently individually validated using the Fluidigm platform in 100 additional CAD controls and 100 general population controls. Results: In total, 555 100 variants were detected in at least one WES pool in the study group and in none of the control WES pools. For second phase validation, we focused on rare, nonsynonymous variants, resulting in a total of 144 variants in 40 genes, of which 96 were selected for subsequent genotyping. Validation phase genotyping resulted in 19 variants in 16 genes that were found in the NCA group and in none of the CAD controls. The SPTBN5, NID2, and ADAMTSL4 genes harbored sequence variants in more than one CAD-protected patient and none of the 117 CAD controls. Conclusion: Applying WES technology and focusing on individuals seemingly protected from developing CAD successfully identified 19 variants that may offer protection from CAD by undetermined mechanisms. Studying the genetics of high-risk individuals apparently protected from CAD may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of CAD. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Bernholtz S.,Danek Gertner Institute of Genetics | Laitman Y.,Danek Gertner Institute of Genetics | Kaufman B.,Institute of Oncology | Kaufman B.,Tel Aviv University | And 3 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have an increased risk for developing breast (and ovarian) cancer. Non-carriers from within such families (=true negatives) are counseled that their risk for developing breast cancer is similar to that of the average-risk population. Breast cancer diagnosed in a non-carrier from a family with a known mutation is coined phenocopy. The rate of breast cancer phenocopy and the risk for breast cancer in true negatives are unsettled. The rate of phenocopy breast cancer was assessed in non-carriers from Jewish families with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, identified at the Sheba medical center. Analysis was performed by t test for comparison of mean age at counseling or breast cancer diagnosis, and by calculating a standardized incidence ratio (SIR). Overall, 1318 females from 884 mutation carrying families (620 with BRCA1 264 with BRCA2 mutations) were genotyped, of whom 307 women from 245 families were assigned a true negative status (mean age at counseling 43.01 ± 13.03 years (range 19.7-92.8 years). Of these true negatives, 20 women (6.51-2.26% of families) developed breast cancer at a mean age of 54.1 ± 12.9 years (range 48.1 -60.1 years). The SIR for breast cancer in true negatives was not significantly different than the expected in the average-risk Israeli population [observed 20-expected 23.8 cases SIR = 0.84, 95% CI (0.51, 1.30)]. The rate of phenocopy breast cancer in non-carriers from Israeli BRCA1 BRCA2 mutation carrier families is 2.26% with no increased breast cancer risk over the average-risk population. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Bernholtz S.,Danek Gertner Institute of Genetics | Laitman Y.,Danek Gertner Institute of Genetics | Kaufman B.,Institute of Oncology | Kaufman B.,Tel Aviv University | And 3 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations substantially increase breast and ovarian cancer risk, yet penetrance is incomplete. The effects of oral contraceptives (OC) on breast cancer risk in mutation carriers are unclear, and the putative effect of parental origin of mutation on cancer risk has not been reported. Data on OC use and parental origin of the mutation were obtained at counseling from 888 BRCA1 (n = 638) or BRCA2 (n = 250) Jewish Israeli mutation carriers who were counseled and genotyped in a single medical center. Overall, 403 (45.4%) of participants had breast cancer (age at diagnosis 49.65 ± 12.2 years), 112 (12.6%) ovarian cancer (age at diagnosis 56.8 ± 10.8 years) and the rest (n = 373-42%) were asymptomatic carriers (age at counseling 40.7 ± 10.6 years). Of study participants, 472 (53.15%) ever used OC, and 298 used OC for at least 5 years. In 129 the mutation originated on the paternal side as judged by direct testing or obligate carriership and in 460 the mutation was maternally inherited. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, and stratifying for birth year, age at menarche, breast feeding, and number of births, showed that ever use of OC (Hazards Ratio-HR = 1.84 95% CI 1.465-2.314, P = 0.001) and paternal compared with maternal origin of mutation (OR = 1.55 95% CI 1.14-2.12, P = 0.006) were significantly associated with breast cancer and an earlier age at breast cancer diagnosis. The authors conclude that OC use and paternal origin of mutation affect breast cancer penetrance in Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Bernholtz S.,Danek Gertner Institute of Genetics | Jakobson-Setton A.,Chaim Sheba Medical Center | Korach J.,Chaim Sheba Medical Center | Korach J.,Tel Aviv University | And 5 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Previous studies suggested that appendectomy may affect cancer risk in the general population. No data on the effect of appendectomy on cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers is available. Data on appendectomy, cancer type, and age at diagnosis were collected from BRCA1 (n = 677) and BRCA2 (n = 270) female Jewish Israeli mutation carriers counseled in a single medical center. Data were also collected on 225 consecutive ovarian cancer cases treated at the same medical center. Overall, 367/947 (38.7%) of mutation carriers had breast cancer (age at diagnosis 44.1 ± 10.4 years), 142 (15.0%) ovarian cancer (53.6 ± 10.1 years), and 438 (46.25%) were asymptomatic carriers (age at counseling 41.4 ± 11.2 years). Mean age at diagnosis of consecutive ovarian cancer cases was 53.6 ± 10.1 years. Of mutation carriers, 28/367 breast cancer cases (7.6%), 15/142 ovarian cancer cases (10.6%), and 11/438 asymptomatic carriers (2.5%) underwent prior appendectomy (P = 0.001 for breast/ovarian cancer when compared with asymptomatic carriers). In all but two cases, appendectomy was performed more than 10 years before cancer diagnosis or age at counseling. Of ovarian cancer patients, 12/225 (5.3%) underwent appendectomy, and in 10 appendectomy was performed 10 years or more before ovarian cancer diagnosis (P = 0.068 when compared with inherited ovarian cancer cases). This study suggests that prior appendectomy is more frequently noted in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers with breast and ovarian cancer than in unaffected mutation carriers. The mechanism for this association is elusive, and future analyses of ethnically diverse mutation carriers are needed to validate these results. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Peixoto A.,Portuguese Oncology Institute | Santos C.,Portuguese Oncology Institute | Pinheiro M.,Portuguese Oncology Institute | Pinto P.,Portuguese Oncology Institute | And 72 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

The c.156-157insAlu BRCA2 mutation has so far only been reported in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families of Portuguese origin. Since this mutation is not detectable using the commonly used screening methodologies and must be specifically sought, we screened for this rearrangement in a total of 5,443 suspected HBOC families from several countries. Whereas the c.156-157insAlu BRCA2 mutation was detected in 11 of 149 suspected HBOC families from Portugal, representing 37.9% of all deleterious mutations, in other countries it was detected only in one proband living in France and in four individuals requesting predictive testing living in France and in the USA, all being Portuguese immigrants. After performing an extensive haplotype study in carrier families, we estimate that this founder mutation occurred 558 ± 215 years ago. We further demonstrate significant quantitative differences regarding the production of the BRCA2 full length RNA and the transcript lacking exon 3 in c.156-157insAlu BRCA2 mutation carriers and in controls. The cumulative incidence of breast cancer in carriers did not differ from that of other BRCA2 and BRCA1 pathogenic mutations. We recommend that all suspected HBOC families from Portugal or with Portuguese ancestry are specifically tested for this rearrangement. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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