Damietta, Egypt

Damietta University

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The Upper Cretaceous megasequence in the northern part of the Egyptian Western Desert has been classified into four 2nd order depositional sequences. These sequences started with the Cenomanian SQ-I topped by the Turonian – Santonian SQ-II. However, both SQ-III and SQ-IV represent the Campanian- Maastrichtian time span. The interpreted 2nd order SQ-I and SQ-II have been further subdivided into six smaller 3rd order sequences (SQ-1 to SQ-6). The depositional history started during the Early Cenomanian times, characterized by wide marine invasion enabled the deposition of the shallow marine Bahariya Formation (SQ-1). The Upper Cenomanian times, witnessed a rapid subsidence, simultaneously with new marine transgressive phase. This is resulted in the deposition of SQ-2, consuming the entire sediments of the Abu Roash G Member. During the Turonian – Coniacian times the northern parts of Egypt showed successive oscillating transgressive – regressive marine cycles led to equivocal sedimentary bodies of the Turonian-Coniacian Abu Roash Formation (SQ-3, SQ-4, and SQ-5). During the Santonian age, the northern parts of Egypt were subjected to tectonic crustal shortening, producing large scale folds. As a result, a new tectonically-overprinted marine depositional cycle started and marked by rapid phase of basin subsidence. This was accompanied by a deep marine invasion covered most of the northern parts of Egyptian lands, depositing the lower parts of the Khoman- B (SQ-6) under transgressive depositional conditions. By the end of Santonian cycle, the upper parts of the Khoman Formation B Member was deposited during a gradual, and slow relative sea level drop ending the deposition of SQ-6. At the beginning of the Campanian – Maastrichtian times, a new widespread sea-level rise associated with basin subsidence. Accordingly, two successive depositional cycles were thus initiated, forming SQ-III and SQ-VI sequences separated by unconformity type-2 boundary (SB-8). © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


El Baz S.M.,Damietta University
Revue de Micropaleontologie | Year: 2017

This study aims to analyze the community of benthic foraminifera in the sediments of Manzala lagoon and investigate the impacts of trace metals on foraminifera. This lagoon is subjected to high input of anthropogenic pollutants from industrial, domestic and agricultural sources, which enter into the lagoon through some drains and canals. Twenty-four surficial sediment samples were taken by a grab sampler during February 2015. Some trace metals (Cu, Mn, Zn and Pb) were analyzed. Based on the contamination indices, Manzala Lagoon could be classified into three main regions: the southern part which exhibited the highest levels of pollution, the middle part of a considerable degree and the northern part of a low degree of pollution. Eight foraminiferal species, belonging to 5 genera were identified. The abundance of Ammonia beccarii and A. tepida may be due to the entrance of high inputs of freshwater into the lagoon and the prevailing of pollution (especially near drains). Test deformities are common and increased in the sites that exposed to pollution. The recorded modes of deformation include twisted tests, additional chamber, reduced chambers, aberrant chamber shape and size, twinning and complex deformities. Twisted or complex modes were common at the sites subjected to high levels of trace metals. This work supported the role of benthic foraminifera as an important bioindicator for the evaluation of the environmental quality of an ecosystem. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Abou Samra R.M.,Damietta University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2017

Low-set coastal areas are expected to aggravate inundation on account of sea level rise (SLR). The present study is planned to appraise the impacts of coastal flooding in Port Said city, Egypt by using remote sensing, GIS, and cartographic modeling techniques. To accomplish this scope, Landsat 8-OLI image dated 2016 and SRTM 1Arc-Second Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data were used. Landsat image was classified into seven land use and land cover (LULC) classes by using remote sensing and GIS’s software. Different inundation scenarios 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0-m coastal elevation were used to figure the influence of SLR on the study area. Estimation of potential losses under SLR was made by overlaying the expected scenarios on land use. The inundation areas under the expected SLR scenarios of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 m were estimated at 827.49, 1072.67, and 1179.41 km2, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that expected coastal flooding scenarios will lead up to serious impacts on LULC classes and coastal features in the study area. © 2017, Springer International Publishing AG.


Teema A.M.,Damietta University | Zaitone S.A.,Suez Canal University | Moustafa Y.M.,Suez Canal University
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2016

Neuroinflammation and angiogenesis have been involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigated the effect of ibuprofen or piroxicam on the motor response to l-dopa and development of dyskinesia in Parkinsonian rats focusing on the anti-angiogenic role of the two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Rats were divided into nine groups as follows: Group I: the vehicle group, Group II: rotenone group, rats were injected with nine doses of rotenone (1 mg/kg/48 h), group III&IV: rats received rotenone + ibuprofen (10 or 30 mg/kg), Group V-VI: rats received rotenone + piroxicam (1 or 3 mg/kg), Group VII: rats received rotenone + l-dopa/carbidopa (100/10 mg/kg), Group VIII-IX: rats received rotenone + l-dopa/carbidopa + ibuprofen (30 mg/kg) or piroxicam (3 mg/kg). In general, drugs were administered daily for ten weeks. Rotenone-treated rats showed motor dysfunction, lower striatal dopamine, lower staining for nigral tyrosine hydroxylase but higher level of striatal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared to vehicle-treated rats (P < 0.05). Treatment with l-dopa showed wearing-off over the course of the experiment in addition to development of abnormal involuntary movements and upregulated striatal VEGF level. Treatment with ibuprofen or piroxicam in combination with l-dopa preserved the effect of l-dopa at the end of week 10, delayed the development of dyskinesia and decreased striatal COX-2 and VEGF levels. In conclusion, the current study suggests that ibuprofen and piroxicam are promising candidates for neuroprotection in PD and may have utility in conjunction with l-dopa in order to ensure the longevity of its action and to delay the development of dyskinesia. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Moawed E.A.,Damietta University | El-Shahat M.F.,Ain Shams University
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2013

In this work, a new type of sorbent (low density polyhydroxy polyurethane Foam, LPPF) was synthesis by using water hydrolysis of polyurethanediazonium chloride salt. LPPF was characterized using different tools e.g. elemental analysis, UV-vis and IR spectra, TGA, SEM, density and pHZPC. It was tested for separation, preconcentration and determination of gold in environmental samples using batch and dynamic techniques. The sorption experimental data was fitted by the pseudo-first kinetic mathematical equation (R2=0.991). The sorption rate of the Au (III) ions is very fast, the half-life (t1/2)≈34s. The equilibrium process is well described by the Freundlich isotherm model, the R2 value is 0.967, which attributed to the heterogeneous surface structure of the LPPF. The breakthrough capacity of LPPF and the recovery of gold ions were 0.36mmolg-1 (70.5mgg-1) and 99-100%, respectively. The lower detection limit of gold by using spectrophotometric method is 3.3ngL-1 with preconcentration factors≈450 (RSD~1.66%, n=4). The values of δG and δH for the sorption of gold onto LPPF were -12.5 and -103.5kJmol-1, respectively, which indicate that the sorption of Au (III) onto LPPF is spontaneous and exothermic reaction. The obtained results indicate that the ion chelation and ion association might be the most probable mechanism of gold sorption onto LPPF. The study shows LPPF has the potential of application as an efficient sorbent for the extraction and determination of gold in water, gold alloys pharmaceutical and granite samples. © 2013 The Authors.


Hereher M.E.,Damietta University
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2015

The present study provided an integrated scheme of utilizing digital elevation models (DEMs) along with five Landsat satellite images between 1973 and 2013 in order to delineate the extent and capacity of El-Rayan depression, Egypt, and to highlight temporal changes which occurred upon the two anthropogenic lakes formed from the discharge of agricultural drainage wastewater within the depression. The capacity of the valley as well as water volume was estimated from DEM data, and water surface area was estimated by applying mathematical indices compiled from spectral bands in satellite data. The modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) was the algorithm operated in this study. Results showed that the area of the depression at the sea level approaches about 352 km2, and the depression can store as much water as 6.45 billion m3. Water body of the two lakes has experienced reduction by seepage, evaporation, and shrinking to about 86 km2 in July 2013. Most shrinking was encountered at the lower lake due to drifting sand and local cultivation. © 2014, Saudi Society for Geosciences.


The reductive perturbation technique is employed to investigate the propagation properties of nonlinear dust acoustic (DA) waves in a four-component inhomogeneous dusty plasma (4CIDP). The 4CIDP consists of both positive- and negative-charge dust grains, characterized by different mass, temperature, and density, in addition to a background of Maxwellian electrons and ions. The inhomogeneity caused by nonuniform equilibrium values of particle densities, fluid velocities, and electrostatic potential leads to a significant modification to the nature of nonlinear DA solitary waves. It is found that this model reveals two DA wave velocities, one slow, λs, and the other is fast, λf. The nonlinear wave evolution is governed by a modified Kortweg-de Vries equation, whose coefficients are space dependent. Both the two soliton types; compressive and rarefactive are allowed corresponding to λs. However, only compressive soliton is created corresponding to λf. The numerical investigations illustrate the dependence of the soliton amplitude, width, and velocity on the plasma inhomogeneities in each case. The relevance of these theoretical results with 4CIDPs observed in a multi-component plasma configurations in the polar mesosphere is discussed. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


Mohamed Baka Z.A.,Damietta University
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2014

Grain samples of 14 Egyptian wheat cultivars were tested for seed-borne fungi. The deep freezing method was used. Five seed-borne fungi viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium chrysogenum were isolated from the wheat cultivars viz., Bani Suef 4, Bani Suef 5, Gemmiza 7, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 10, Giza 168, Misr 1, Misr 2, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Shandaweel 1, Sids 1, Sids 2 and Sids 3. A. flavus, A. niger and F. moniliforme were the most prevalent fungal species. Their incidence ranged from 21.0-53.5%, 16.0-37.5%, and 12.0-31.0%, respectively. The antifungal potential of water extracts from aerial parts of five wild medicinal plants (Asclepias sinaica, Farsetia aegyptia, Hypericum sinaicum, Phagnalon sinaicum, and Salvia aegyptiaca) were collected from the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The antifungal potential of water extracts from the aerial parts of these five plants were tested in the laboratory against the dominant fungi isolated from the wheat cultivars. All the aqueous plant extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the incidence of the tested seed-borne fungi. But the extract of Asclepias sinaica exhibited the most antifungal activity on tested fungi at all concentrations used when compared with other plant extracts. Maximum infested grain germination was observed in Giza 168 and minimum in Bani Suef 5. Treating grains with plant extract of A. sinaica (10%) enhanced the percentage of grain germination of all cultivars in both laboratory and pot experiments. Maximum root and shoot length of seedlings was recorded in Bani Suef 4 during fungal infestation or treatment by plant extract. For one hour before sowing or storage, the aqueous extract of A. sinaica can be used to treat wheat grains, to reduce the fungal incidence. Aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of selected medicinal plants, particularly A. sinaica, are promising for protecting Egyptian wheat grain cultivars against major seed-borne fungi. The aqueous extracts are expected to improve crops. © by Zakaria Awad Mohamed Baka 2014.


Hereher M.E.,Damietta University
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2015

Hereher, M.E., 2015. Assessment of South Sinai coastal vulnerability to climate change. Coastal vulnerability assessment is important to help achieve the sustainable use of coastal resources and to incorporate coastal hazards into coastal planning and decision making for integrated management. This study applied the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) to delineate susceptibility of the South Sinai coastline to climate change. The following variables pertaining to inherent shoreline characteristics were used in the assessment of the CVI: coastal slope, coastal geomorphology, fauna/flora, and socioeconomic factors. GIS and remote sensing analysis were employed to extract intrinsic attributes of the coast in this study area. Results showed that about one half of the 635-km-long coastline is exposed to high and very high coastal vulnerability to climate change, and global warming could exacerbate biologic suffering in the region. The Gulf of Suez is likely to be more vulnerable than the Gulf of Aqaba. Most areas susceptible to climate change include gentle, unconsolidated, coral assemblages and inhabited coastal segments. Coastal zone managers should implement remediation plans for any anticipated ecosystem disruption episodes. © 2015 Coastel Education and Research, Inc.


Ahmed E.M.,Damietta University
Current Applied Physics | Year: 2013

Density and current-field characteristics related to switching phenomenon in zinc-doped strontium iron vanadate glasses having the formula (70 - x)%V 2O 5-x%ZnO-10%SrO-20%FeO, have been investigated over a wide composition range [0 ≤ x ≤ 15] at different thicknesses and temperatures. The samples are found to show threshold switching behavior. The switching fields are found to increase with the increase of zinc content while they decrease when the temperature is increased. The activation energy for switching was found to increase with the increase of ZnO content. Finally, the switching results are discussed in terms of the electrothermal model depending on the samples thicknesses and power calculus. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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