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Dallas, TX, United States

Penfold L.M.,South East Zoo Alliance for Reproduction and Conservation | Hallager S.,Smithsonians National Zoo | Boylan J.,Dallas Zoo | Boylan J.,University College West | And 3 more authors.
Zoo Biology | Year: 2013

To better understand breeding conditions to promote reproduction in captive kori bustards, fundamental endocrine studies measuring fecal androgen metabolites in male and female kori bustards were conducted. Feces collected weekly from males and females were analyzed for testosterone using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results from adult males (n = 5), adult females (n = 10), immature males (n = 10), and immature females (n = 10) revealed seasonally elevated testosterone concentrations in fertile, but not nonfertile adult males and females (P > 0.05). Adult females that were not maintained in a breeding group, or that did not produce eggs, did not demonstrate increases in testosterone compared to egg laying counterparts. In males, but not females, seasonal testosterone increases were accompanied by weight gain. Peaks in male fecal androgen metabolites ranged from 10- to 22-fold higher than nonbreeding season (181.5 ± 19.1 vs. 17.0 ± 0.94 ng/g; P < 0.05). Mean breeding season values for adult males were 83.6 ± 6.1 ng/g vs. nonbreeding season values of 12.3 ± 0.73 ng/g (P < 0.05). In females, average breeding season testosterone concentrations were approximately 4-fold higher than nonbreeding season (55.9 ± 6.0 vs. 14.5 ± 1.8 ng/g), with peaks 10- to 30-fold higher. Results show that noninvasive fecal androgen metabolite analysis can provide a means of predicting fertility potential of male and female kori bustards and might be utilized to assess effects of modifying captive environments to promote reproduction in this species. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Butti C.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Ewan fordyce R.,University of Otago | Ann Raghanti M.,Kent State University | Gu X.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 12 more authors.
Anatomical Record | Year: 2014

The structure of the hippopotamus brain is virtually unknown because few studies have examined more than its external morphology. In view of their semiaquatic lifestyle and phylogenetic relatedness to cetaceans, the brain of hippopotamuses represents a unique opportunity for better understanding the selective pressures that have shaped the organization of the brain during the evolutionary process of adaptation to an aquatic environment. Here we examined the histology of the cerebral cortex of the pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) by means of Nissl, Golgi, and calretinin (CR) immunostaining, and provide a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) structural and volumetric dataset of the anatomy of its brain. We calculated the corpus callosum area/brain mass ratio (CCA/BM), the gyrencephalic index (GI), the cerebellar quotient (CQ), and the cerebellar index (CI). Results indicate that the cortex of H. liberiensis shares one feature exclusively with cetaceans (the lack of layer IV across the entire cerebral cortex), other features exclusively with artiodactyls (e.g., the morphologiy of CR-immunoreactive multipolar neurons in deep cortical layers, gyrencephalic index values, hippocampus and cerebellum volumetrics), and others with at least some species of cetartiodactyls (e.g., the presence of a thick layer I, the pattern of distribution of CR-immunoreactive neurons, the presence of von Economo neurons, clustering of layer II in the occipital cortex). The present study thus provides a comprehensive dataset of the neuroanatomy of H. liberiensis that sets the ground for future comparative studies including the larger Hippopotamus amphibius. Anat Rec, 297:670-700, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kruse T.N.,Sunrise Medical | Kruse T.N.,University of Oviedo | Garner M.M.,Northwest ZooPath | Bonar C.J.,Dallas Zoo
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2015

A retrospective examination of gross and histologic reports was performed to find common lesions in young and adult captive rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) from multiple zoo populations. One hundred and thirty-seven reports were analyzed from specimens that were submitted to Northwest ZooPath from 1997 to 2013. Histologic findings from necropsy and biopsy reports and causes of mortality only from necropsy reports were compiled to determine the most common findings. Within the study population, 41 (30%) were male, 62 (45%) were female, and the remainder (34, 25%) were of undetermined sex. Of the 111 necropsies, 87 (78%) died naturally, and 24 (22%) were euthanatized. There were 26 (19%) biopsies with no known status of the animal. The most frequent causes of death or reason for euthanasia were bacterial septicemia (n = 29, 21%) and degenerative cardiomyopathy (n = 29, 21%). The other most prevalent lesions were hemosiderosis (n = 55, 40%), pancreatic islet and interstitial fibrosis (n = 36, 26%), pneumonia of undetermined cause (n = 26, 19%), enteritis/colitis (n = 24, 18%), and renal tubular necrosis (n = 20, 15%). In many animals of this study population (n = 115, 84%), multiple lesions affecting multiple organs were found. © Copyright 2015 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Smith T.D.,Slippery Rock University | Smith T.D.,University of Pittsburgh | Muchlinski M.N.,University of Kentucky | Jankord K.D.,Slippery Rock University | And 7 more authors.
Anatomical Record | Year: 2015

In this report we provide data on dental eruption and tooth germ maturation at birth in a large sample constituting the broadest array of non-human primates studied to date. Over 100 perinatal primates, obtained from natural captive deaths, were screened for characteristics indicating premature birth, and were subsequently studied using a combination of histology and micro-CT. Results reveal one probable unifying characteristic of living primates: relatively advanced maturation of deciduous teeth and M1 at birth. Beyond this, there is great diversity in the status of tooth eruption and maturation (dental stage) in the newborn primate. Contrasting strategies in producing a masticatory battery are already apparent at birth in strepsirrhines and anthropoids. Results show that dental maturation and eruption schedules are potentially independently co-opted as different strategies for attaining feeding independence. The most common strategy in strepsirrhines is accelerating eruption and the maturation of the permanent dentition, including replacement teeth. Anthropoids, with only few exceptions, accelerate mineralization of the deciduous teeth, while delaying development of all permanent teeth except M1. These results also show that no living primate resembles the altricial tree shrew (Tupaia) in dental development. Our preliminary observations suggest that ecological explanations, such as diet, provide an explanation for certain morphological variations at birth. These results confirm previous work on perinatal indriids indicating that these and other primates telegraph their feeding adaptations well before masticatory anatomy is functional. Quantitative analyses are required to decipher specific dietary and other influences on dental size and maturation in the newborn primate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Gyimesi Z.S.,Louisville Zoological Garden | Burns R.B.,Louisville Zoological Garden | Campbell M.,Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden | Knightly F.,Denver Zoological Gardens | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2011

Fatal abomasal impaction, often combined with omasal impaction, was diagnosed in 11 bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus) from five different zoologic collections in the United States between 1981 and 2009. Nine of 11 cases occurred in young females (10 mo-7 yr old) and typical clinical signs prior to diagnosis or death included partial or complete anorexia, dehydration, and scant fecal production. Although the clinical histories in several of the earlier cases are incomplete, clinical signs were known to begin shortly after an anesthetic event in five of 11 bongo (45%). Pedigree analysis indicates that affected bongo were descendants of multiple founders and not from a single family line, suggesting that the development of abomasal impaction is not a strictly inheritable trait. Treatment, when attempted, was variable and included abomasotomy and removal of impacted ingesta, drug therapy (prokinetic drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, antimicrobials), fluid therapy, and administration of oral lubricants or intralesional stool softeners. Based on the outcomes in the cases presented here, the prognosis for bongo with abomasal impaction is considered poor to grave. Copyright 2011 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

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