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Dallas, TX, United States

BACKGROUND: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) consensus statement (CS) for the application of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) was applied to patients who were treated with this technique on the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite Registry Trial to determine potential differences in clinical outcome based on classification group. METHODS: Patients were classified based on the CS groups of "suitable, " "cautionary," and "unsuitable." Rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional lymph node failure, distant metastases, disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 1449 cases who were treated, 1025 patients (71%) could be classified according to the CS groupings, including 419 patients (41%) who fit the "suitable" criteria, 430 patients (42%) who fit the "cautionary" criteria, and 176 patients (17%) who fit the "unsuitable" criteria. At a median follow-up of 53.5 months, the 5-year actuarial rates of IBTR for the "suitable," "cautionary," and "unsuitable" groups were 2.59%, 5.43%, and 5.28%, respectively (P=.1884). Univariate analysis of factors potentially associated with IBTR indicated that negative estrogen receptor status was the only variable associated with IBTR among patients with invasive breast cancer (odds ratio [OR], 4.01; P=.0003). Larger tumor size was associated with a greater risk of distant metastasis (OR, 3.05; P=.0001). Among patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, only age <50 years and close-positive margins were associated with IBTR (OR, 1.12 [P=.0079] and OR, 7.81 [P=.0131], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The ASTRO CS groupings did not differentiate a subset of patients with a significantly worse rate of IBTR when they were treated with the MammoSite breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver APBI. © 2010 American Cancer Society. Source

Shah C.,William Beaumont Hospital | Vicini F.,William Beaumont Hospital | Keisch M.,University of Miami | Kuerer H.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | And 3 more authors.

Background: The objective of this study was to examine clinical outcomes and patterns of failure in patients with early stage breast cancer who developed an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) using accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods: In total, 1440 patients (1449 tumors) with early stage breast cancer who underwent BCT were treated with the MammoSite device to deliver APBI (34 Gray [Gy] in 3.4-Gy fractions). One thousand two hundred fifty-five patients (87%) had invasive breast cancer (IBC) (median tumor size, 10 mm), and 194 patients (13%) had ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (median tumor size, 8 mm). The median follow-up was 60 months. Results: Fifty patients (3.5%) developed an IBTR for a 5-year actuarial rate of 3.61% (3.65% for IBC and 3.36% for DCIS). It was determined that 36 recurrences (72%) represented new primary cancers, and 14 recurrences (28%) represented recurrences of the index lesion. Of the 32 recurrences with known histology, 78% were IBC, and 22% were DCIS. After IBTR, 28 of 38 patients (74%) underwent salvage mastectomy, and 9 of 38 patients (26%) had a second attempt at BCT. Adjuvant therapies included tamoxifen in 8 patients (16%) and systemic chemotherapy in 6 patients (12%). The 3-year rates of disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival after IBTR were 58.7%, 92.1%, and 80.5%, respectively. Conclusions: With 5 years of follow-up, APBI produced clinical outcomes and patterns of failure comparable to those achieved with whole breast irradiation. Patients who developed an IBTR after APBI had excellent 3-year survival outcomes after salvage treatments. © 2011 American Cancer Society. Source

Giuliano A.E.,John Wayne Cancer Institute | Hunt K.K.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Ballman K.V.,Mayo Medical School | Beitsch P.D.,Dallas Surgical Group | And 6 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Context: Sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) accurately identifies nodal metastasis of early breast cancer, but it is not clear whether further nodal dissection affects survival. Objective: To determine the effects of complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) on survival of patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis of breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Patients: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 trial, a phase 3 noninferiority trial conducted at 115 sites and enrolling patients from May 1999 to December 2004. Patients were women with clinical T1-T2 invasive breast cancer, no palpable adenopathy, and 1 to 2 SLNs containing metastases identified by frozen section, touch preparation, or hematoxylin-eosin staining on permanent section. Targeted enrollmentwas 1900 women with final analysis after 500 deaths, but the trial closed early because mortality rate was lower than expected. Interventions: All patients underwent lumpectomy and tangential whole-breast irradiation. Those with SLN metastases identified by SLND were randomized to undergo ALND or no further axillary treatment. Those randomized to ALND underwent dissection of 10 or more nodes. Systemic therapy was at the discretion of the treating physician. Main Outcome Measures: Overall survival was the primary end point, with a non-inferiority margin of a 1-sided hazard ratio of less than 1.3 indicating that SLND alone is noninferior to ALND. Disease-free survival was a secondary end point. Results: Clinical and tumor characteristics were similar between 445 patients randomized to ALND and 446 randomized to SLND alone. However, the median number of nodes removed was 17 with ALND and 2 with SLND alone. At a median follow-up of 6.3 years (last follow-up, March 4, 2010), 5-year overall survival was 91.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.1%-94.5%)with ALND and 92.5% (95% CI, 90.0%-95.1%) with SLND alone; 5-year disease-free survival was 82.2% (95% CI, 78.3%-86.3%) with ALND and 83.9% (95% CI, 80.2%-87.9%) with SLND alone. The hazard ratio for treatment-related overall survival was 0.79 (90% CI, 0.56-1.11) without adjustment and 0.87 (90% CI, 0.62-1.23) after adjusting for age and adjuvant therapy. Conclusion: Among patients with limited SLN metastatic breast cancer treated with breast conservation and systemic therapy, the use of SLND alone compared with ALND did not result in inferior survival. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003855. ©2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Giuliano A.E.,John Wayne Cancer Institute | McCall L.,The American College | Beitsch P.,Dallas Surgical Group | Whitworth P.W.,Nashville Breast Center | And 6 more authors.
Annals of Surgery

Background and Objective: Sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) has eliminated the need for axillary dissection (ALND) in patients whose sentinel node (SN) is tumor-free. However, completion ALND for patients with tumor-involved SNs remains the standard to achieve locoregional control. Few studies have examined the outcome of patients who do not undergo ALND for positive SNs. We now report local and regional recurrence information from the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 trial. Methods: American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 was a prospective trial examining survival of patients with SN metastases detected by standard H and E, who were randomized to undergo ALND after SLND versus SLND alone without specific axillary treatment. Locoregional recurrence was evaluated. Results: There were 446 patients randomized to SLND alone and 445 to SLND + ALND. Patients in the 2 groups were similar with respect to age, Bloom-Richardson score, estrogen receptor status, use of adjuvant systemic therapy, tumor type, T stage, and tumor size. Patients randomized to SLND + ALND had a median of 17 axillary nodes removed compared with a median of only 2 SN removed with SLND alone (P < 0.001). ALND also removed more positive lymph nodes (P < 0.001). At a median follow-up time of 6.3 years, there were no statistically significant differences in local recurrence (P = 0.11) or regional recurrence (P = 0.45) between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Despite the potential for residual axillary disease after SLND, SLND without ALND can offer excellent regional control and may be reasonable management for selected patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy and adjuvant systemic therapy. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Shah C.,Oakland University | Wilkinson J.B.,Oakland University | Lyden M.,Biostat Inc. | Mbah A.,Biostat Inc. | And 3 more authors.

Purpose: To compare rates of regional recurrence (RR) and overall survival (OS) between a pooled set of 1400 patients treated on the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA) Registry Trial to a cohort of 3600 patients treated with whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1440 women underwent accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) between 2002 and 2004 as part of the American Society of Breast Surgeons Registry Trial and a total of 3593 patients who received WBI were evaluated from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database with treatment received between 1980 and 2009. A matched-pair analysis was performed based on age, receipt of hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, nodal status, and tumor size (1051 patients per arm). Rates of RR and OS were then analyzed for each group. Results: After the match, no differences in patient characteristics were noted when tumor size was evaluated as a continuous variable. Rates of RR and OS were similar between the WBI and APBI groups. A Cox regression model found no difference between WBI and APBI with regard to RR; however, OS was improved in the APBI cohort (hazard ratio 0.008, p<0.0001). Conclusions: With one of the largest patient populations to date comparing WBI and APBI, no difference in RR or OS was noted between WBI and APBI treatment. Until the publication of prospective Phase III trials, these data support the continued use of APBI on protocol and off protocol in appropriately selected patients. © 2012 American Brachytherapy Society. Source

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