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Xing D.,Dalian University of Technology | Xing D.,Dalian Sunrise Power Co. | He G.,Dalian University of Technology | Hou Z.,Dalian Sunrise Power Co. | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

Organically modified montmorillonites are valuable materials that have been used to improve the permeability, water retention, and proton conductivity of proton exchange membrane for fuel cells. A sulfonated montmorillonite/sulfonated poly (biphenyl ether sulfone)/Polytetrafluoroethylene (SMMT/SPSU-BP/PTFE) composite membrane was prepared for fuel cells. The thermal stability of the SMMT was tested by the thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) and its structure in the composite membrane was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that SMMT was stable up to 205 °C and the interlayer distance of the nanoclay expanded from 1.43 nm to 1.76 nm after the organic sulfonic modification. The SMMT was completely exfoliated in the composite membranes. The properties of ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling ratio, proton conductivity, and mechanical strength of the composite membranes were investigated as well. The good water retention of SMMT made the SMMT/SPSU-BP and SMMT/SPSU-BP/PTFE composite membranes have about 20% more bound water than the SPSU-BP membrane. Due to the reinforce effect of the PTFE porous film, the SMMT/SPSU-BP/PTFE composite membrane presented low swelling even at elevated temperature and high stress strength. All of the properties indicate that the SMMT/SPSU-BP/PTFE composite membrane is very promising as the PEM for medium temperature PEMFCs. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Fan L.,Tianjin University | Zhang G.,Tianjin University | Wang R.,Tianjin University | Wang R.,Dalian Sunrise Power Co. | Jiao K.,Tianjin University
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2016

A comprehensive mathematical model is proposed to calculate the optimal leg length and cross-section area of TEG unit to maximize the peak output power. The model shows that for a TEG unit, there exists an optimal ratio of leg length and leg cross-section area corresponding to the maximum peak output power with a convective thermal boundary condition, and the optimal leg length and cross-section area can be further calculated based on the optimal ratio. The mathematical model is also validated in this paper, and the corresponding error is within a reasonable range. Moreover, the effects of the leg length and leg area on the peak output power, the peak output power density and the efficiency of TEG unit with different thermal boundary conditions are also discussed. This study will provide guidance for the structure design optimization of TEG unit. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yu J.,Dalian University of Technology | Jiang Z.,Dalian University of Technology | Hou M.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | Liang D.,Dalian Sunrise Power Co. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2014

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with a dead-ended anode (DEA) can obtain high hydrogen utilization by a comparatively simple system. Nevertheless, the accumulation of the nitrogen and the water in the anode channels can lead to a local fuel starvation, which degrades the performance and durability of PEMFCs. In this paper, the behaviors of PEMFCs with a DEA are explored experimentally by detecting the current distribution and the local potentials. The results indicate that the current distribution is uneven during the DEA operation. The local current firstly decreases at the region near the anode outlet, and then extends to the inlet region along the channels with time. The complete fuel starvation near the anode outlet leads to a high local potential and carbon corrosion on the cathode side. The SEM images of the cathode electrode reveal that the significant thickness reduction and the collapse of the electrode's porous structure happen in the cathode catalyst layer, leading to the irreversible decline of the performance. The comparison of the experiments with different oxidants and fuels reveals that the nitrogen crossover from cathode to anode is the dominant factor on the performance decline under the DEA operations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhang H.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | Zhang H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Lin G.,Dalian University of Technology | Hou M.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2012

CrN/Cr multilayer coating is prepared on 316L stainless steel as bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) by pulsed bias arc ion plating (PBAIP). Interfacial conductivity of the bipolar plate with CrN/Cr multilayer is improved obviously, presenting an interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of 8.4 mω cm?2 under 1.4 MPa. The results tested by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic measures in simulated PEMFC environments show that the bipolar plate with CrN/Cr multilayer has good anticorrosion performance. The corrosion current density of the bipolar plate with CrN/Cr multilayer is approximately 10?8.0 A cm?2 at 0.6 V (vs. SCE) in a 0.5 M H2SO4 + 5 ppm F- solution at 70 °C with pressured air purging. The results of SEM and ICR before and after corrosion tests indicate that the bipolar plate with CrN/Cr multilayer is considerably stable electrochemically. The bipolar plate with CrN/Cr multilayer combined the prominent interfacial conductivity and the excellent corrosion resistance, showing great potential of application in PEMFC. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Dou M.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | Dou M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Hou M.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | Liang D.,Dalian Sunrise Power Co. | And 4 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2013

Tin oxide nanocluster (SnO2) with parallel nanorods was synthesized via a hard template method and explored as the anode catalyst support for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Single cell test demonstrated that SnO2 supported Pt catalyst (Pt/SnO2) exhibited comparable anode performance with conventional Pt/C. Electrochemical measurements showed that Pt/SnO2 exhibited significantly enhanced electrochemical stability than Pt/C under high potential electro-oxidation and potential cycling. The Pt/SnO2 catalyst reserved most of its electrochemically active surface area (ECA) under 10 h potential hold at 1.6 V while its ECA degradation rate was one order of magnitude lower than Pt/C under potential cycling between 0.6 and 1.2 V. Therefore, SnO2 nanocluster can be considered as a promising alternative anode catalyst support for PEMFCs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhao Y.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | Zhao Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yu H.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | Xing D.,Dalian Sunrise Power Co. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2012

In this paper, we report on the preparation of a novel type of PTFE based composite anion exchange membrane for alkaline fuel cells by a low-toxic and facile processing route. The membranes were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of a N-vinylformamide monomer in the PTFE matrix, followed by hydrolysis in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution and quaternary amination with iodomethane-ethanol solution. The method for anion exchange membrane synthesis is facile, low-toxic and does not involve the use of carcinogenic chemical such as chloromethylmethylether and trimethylamine. The membranes were characterized via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Water uptake, ionic exchange capacity, tensile strength and conductivity have also been investigated to evaluate the performance in alkaline fuel cell. The results showed that the membranes exhibited high ionic exchange capacity, as well as good mechanical, chemical and thermal stabilities. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Du C.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | Du C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Du C.,Dalian Sunrise Power Co. | Ming P.,Dalian Sunrise Power Co. | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2010

Vacuum resin impregnation method has been used to prepare polymer/compressed expanded graphite (CEG) composite bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this research, three different preparation techniques of the epoxy/CEG composite bipolar plate (Compression-Impregnation method, Impregnation-Compression method and Compression-Impregnation-Compression method) are optimized by the physical properties of the composite bipolar plates. The optimum conditions and the advantages/disadvantages of the different techniques are discussed respectively. Although having different characteristics, bipolar plates obtained by these three techniques can all meet the demands of PEMFC bipolar plates as long as the optimum conditions are selected. The Compression-Impregnation-Compression method is shown to be the optimum method because of the outstanding properties of the bipolar plates. Besides, the cell assembled with these optimum composite bipolar plates shows excellent stability after 200 h durability testing. Therefore the composite prepared by vacuum resin impregnation method is a promising candidate for bipolar plate materials in PEMFCs. © 2010.


Du C.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | Du C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ming P.,Dalian Sunrise Power Co. | Hou M.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2010

Although the composite bipolar plates prepared by the method of the vacuum resin impregnation in compressed expanded graphite (CEG) sheets have been applied in the KW-class stacks, there have been few investigations of the preparation and properties of them so far. In this research, the influences of the microstructure on the physical properties of the thin epoxy/CEG composites (the thickness is 1 mm) are investigated for the first time and the optimum preparation conditions are obtained. Results demonstrated that the mechanical property and the impermeability of the composites increases evidently with the resin content changing from 4% to 30%, while the electrical properties keep nearly constant. It can be attributed to the continuous expanded graphite (EG) conductive network of the raw CEG sheet. The epoxy (30 wt.%)/CEG composite is shown to be the optimum composite, displaying in-plane conductivity of 119.8 S cm-1, through-plane resistance of 17.13 mΩ cm2, density of 1.95 g cm-3, gas permeability of 1.94 × 10-6 cm3 cm-2 s-1 and flexural strength of 45.8 MPa. The alcohol scrubbing is the optimum method of surface post-processing. The performance of a single cell with the optimum composite bipolar plates is tested and demonstrated to be outstanding. Above all, the composite prepared by resin vacuum impregnation in the CEG sheet is a promising candidate for bipolar plate materials in PEMFCs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Yun H.,Qingdao Technological University | Liu S.,Qingdao Technological University | Zhao Y.,Qingdao Technological University | Xie J.,Qingdao University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2015

In this paper, a novel stiffness coefficient model (SCM) is proposed for power flow distribution between two power sources, fuel cell system and battery. Then the energy management strategy is developed based on the SCM for a prototype FCHV. The power flow distribution in different power sources could be dynamically adjusted by the proposed strategy according to the logic relationship between the power demand and the fuel cell output power at peak efficiency point, and the fuel economy of the FCHV could be improved as much as possible by making the fuel cell system work in high-efficiency area. The designed control strategy is verified by the simulation and the practical test. In the test, for a combined cycle which includes three typical driving cycles, the fuel economy of the FCHV with the proposed control strategy is increased averagely by 5.18% with maintaining power balance and stable control. © 2014 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Fu J.,Dalian Jiaotong University | Xu H.,Dalian Jiaotong University | Xu H.,Dalian Sunrise Power Co. | Wu Y.,Dalian Jiaotong University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites | Year: 2012

In the present article, highly conductive vinyl ester resin/compressed expanded graphite sheet-based composites were investigated. The composites were prepared by vacuum impregnation with resin solution in compressed expanded graphite sheets of various densities. The microstructures of the composites were systemically characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The composites were found to be still the basic constituent unit (i.e., carbon-crystal layer) of the compressed expanded graphite sheets after resin impregnation, although the pore diameter distribution of the composites changed. The effects of resin content on the electrical conductivity of the composites were also investigated. The effective media theory and a simple generalized effective media equation were employed to predict the electrical conductivity of the composites. The experimental results of electrical conductivities (in- and through-plane directions) and the microstructure of the composites were highly consistent with simulated data in the model. © 2011 The Author(s).

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