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Wang T.,Dalian University of Technology | Wang T.,Dalian SEM Bio Engineering Technology Co. | Sun Y.,Liaoning Academy of Agricultural science | Jin L.,Dalian University of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2013

The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) has been evolutionary conserved from insects to mammals and plays a major regulatory role in the initiation of physiological responses. In this study, we identified and characterized a primitive and functional NF-κB pathway active in the immune defence of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus). The ancient NF-κB homologues, Aj-rel and Aj-p105, share numerous signature motifs with their vertebrate orthologues, notably the Rel Homology Domain, Rel Protein Signature DNA Binding Motif, Nuclear Localization Signal and the Ankyrin Repeats for Aj-p105. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that these homologues belong to class I and II of NF-κB respectively. We examined the dimerization of Aj-rel and Aj-p105 and our results demonstrated that Aj-rel forms heterdimers with Aj-p105 and the degradation product of Aj-p105, namely Aj-p50. We further observed that LPS stimulation led to the degradation of Aj-p105 and the nuclear translocation of Aj-rel and Aj-p50. Taken together, our data indicate that the NF-κB signaling cascade is active in sea cucumber and plays a crucial role in regulating their immune defence. Our results increase the available information on sea cucumber immunity and provide new information for use in the study of the comparative and evolutionary aspects of immunity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Li H.,Dalian University of Technology | Jin L.,Dalian University of Technology | Wu F.,Dalian University of Technology | Thacker P.,University of Saskatchewan | And 6 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na 2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p<0.05) for birds fed 1.2, 2.4 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (p<0.05). All the red pepper powder treatments also increased (p<0.05) the yolk color score compared with the control. The results of the present study suggest that both red pepper powder and pigment are effective feed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens. Copyright © 2012 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. Source


Li X.,Dalian University of Technology | Li X.,Ministry of Education Center for Food Safety of Animal Origin | Wang L.,Dalian University of Technology | Wang L.,Ministry of Education Center for Food Safety of Animal Origin | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

In recent years, the use of in-feed antibiotics for growth and disease prevention in livestock production has been under severe scrutiny. The use and misuse of in-feed antibiotics has led to problems with drug residues in animal products and increased bacterial resistance. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) have attracted considerable attention as an alternative to antibiotics to maintain swine health and performance. Oral administration of IgY possesses many advantages over mammalian IgG such as cost-effectiveness, convenience and high yield. This review presents an overview of the potential to use IgY immunotherapy for the prevention and treatment of swine diarrhea diseases and speculates on the future of IgY technology. Included are a review of the potential applications of IgY in the control of enteric infections of either bacterial or viral origin such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., rotavirus, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Some potential obstacles to the adoption of IgY technology are also discussed. © 2015 Li et al. Source


Li X.,Dalian University of Technology | Wang L.,Dalian University of Technology | Zhen Y.,Dalian Medical University | Li S.,Dalian SEM Bio Engineering Technology Co. | Xu Y.,Dalian University of Technology
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

In recent years, the use of in-feed antibiotics for growth and disease prevention in livestock production has been under severe scrutiny. The use and misuse of in-feed antibiotics has led to problems with drug residues in animal products and increased bacterial resistance. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) have attracted considerable attention as an alternative to antibiotics to maintain swine health and performance. Oral administration of IgY possesses many advantages over mammalian IgG such as cost-effectiveness, convenience and high yield. This review presents an overview of the potential to use IgY immunotherapy for the prevention and treatment of swine diarrhea diseases and speculates on the future of IgY technology. Included are a review of the potential applications of IgY in the control of enteric infections of either bacterial or viral origin such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., rotavirus, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Some potential obstacles to the adoption of IgY technology are also discussed. © 2015 Li et al. Source


Zhang J.,Dalian University of Technology | Zhang J.,Ministry of Education Center for Food Safety of Animal Origin | Cao Z.,Dalian University of Technology | Cao Z.,Yunnan Agricultural University | And 13 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2015

Vibrio alginolyticus is an important pathogen that causes a variety of diseases in marine animals including the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Herein, we describe a two-phage mixture which may have potential for use as an antibacterial agent to prevent V. alginolyticus infection in the sea cucumber. A Z1210 bacterial isolate was cultured from diseased sea cucumber suffering from skin ulcerations and viscera ejection. The isolate was identified as V. alginolyticus by morphology and sequence similarity analysis. Subsequently, two bacteriophages infecting isolate Z1210 were isolated from the drainpipe of an aquatic market. Morphologically, these two phages were classified as members of Podoviridae (PVA1) and Myoviridae (PVA2) and each phage showed high virulence in an in vitro experiment. Additionally, an experiment conducted in a marine environment showed that a mixture of the two phages increased the survival of sea cucumbers (10±2g) to 73, 50, and 47% when it was used with a multiplicity of infection of 10, 1, or 0.1, respectively. This result differed markedly from the control without phage (3% survival) while there was no significant difference between the 80 and 47% survival observed for two antibiotic treatments (5mg/L doxycycline and 10mg/L kanamycin, respectively). © by the World Aquaculture Society 2015. Source

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