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Dalian, China

Dalian Nationalities University is located in Dalian, Liaoning, People's Republic of China and directly supervised by the State Ethnic Affairs Commission. Wikipedia.

Ruan C.-J.,Dalian Nationalities University | da Silva J.A.T.,Kagawa University
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2011

Since Darwin observed the reconfiguration of pollinia in orchards and referred to it as a function to reduce self-pollination, diverse floral movements have been investigated and various hypotheses have been proposed to explain their adaptive significance. However, adaptive significance of floral movement in some species has yet to be fully explained. Increasing evidence suggests that some floral movements, which have previously been considered as a mechanism to avoid self-pollination, may act as a mechanism to reduce intrafloral male-female interference. In this review, we first explore insect-induced floralmovement-such as secondary pollen presentation-that enhances the efficiency and accuracy of pollination. Secondly, we outline the active movements of different floral structures of pistil (style), stamen (filament, anther, pollen), and corolla, such as flexistyly, pollen sliding and catapulting, and anther rotation. Thirdly, we introduce movement herkogamy, which makes herkogamy decrease or increase via the movements of floral structures, especially decreased approach herkogamy via style curvature in the Malvaceae with a monadelphous column. Fourthly, we highlight the different adaptive significances in floral movements for understanding their evolution, including reduction in intrafloral male-female interference, promotion of outcrossing and/or avoidance of self-pollination, delayed autonomous selfing, and tolerance to harsh environments. In particular, we explore the possibility of three functions of one floral movement in one species, which differs from the generally recognized and conventional notion of one floral movement in one species with only one or two functional mechanisms. Finally, we provide perspectives on the challenges and opportunities for using demographic and molecular genetic approaches to (i) study the relative importance and evolutionary mechanism of different adaptive significances in one floral movement; and (ii) simultaneously investigate the floral movement and correlative traits of broader species in related or unrelated families to test how they evolved and the evolutionary relationship between their functions. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Ruan C.-J.,Dalian Nationalities University | Shao H.-B.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Teixeira Da Silva J.A.,Kagawa University
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Global warming is one of the most serious challenges facing us today. It may be linked to the increase in atmospheric CO 2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs), leading to a rise in sea level, notable shifts in ecosystems, and in the frequency and intensity of wild fires. There is a strong interest in stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of CO 2 and other GHGs by decreasing carbon emission and/or increasing carbon sequestration. Biotic sequestration is an important and effective strategy to mitigate the effects of rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations by increasing carbon sequestration and storage capacity of ecosystems using plant photosynthesis and by decreasing carbon emission using biofuel rather than fossil fuel. Improvement of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, using transgenic engineering, potentially provides a set of available and effective tools for enhancing plant carbon sequestration. In this review, firstly different biological methods of CO 2 assimilation in C 3, C 4 and CAM plants are introduced and three types of C 4 pathways which have high photosynthetic performance and have evolved as CO 2 pumps are briefly summarized. Then (i) the improvement of photosynthetic carbon assimilation of C 3 plants by transgenic engineering using non-C 4 genes, and (ii) the overexpression of individual or multiple C 4 cycle photosynthetic genes (PEPC, PPDK, PCK, NADPME and NADP-MDH) in transgenic C 3 plants (e.g. tobacco, potato, rice and Arabidopsis) are highlighted. Some transgenic C 3 plants (e.g. tobacco, rice and Arabidopsis) overexpressing the FBP/SBPase, ictB and cytochrome c 6 genes showed positive effects on photosynthetic efficiency and growth characteristics. However, over the last 28 years, efforts to overexpress individual, double or multiple C 4 enzymes in C 3 plants like tobacco, potato, rice, and Arabidopsis have produced mixed results that do not confirm or eliminate the possibility of improving photosynthesis of C 3 plants by this approach. Finally, a prospect is provided on the challenges of enhancing carbon assimilation of C 3 plants using transgenic engineering in the face of global warming, and the trends of the most promising approaches to improving the photosynthetic performance of C 3 plants. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Wu S.L.,Dalian Nationalities University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2015

We apply the time-dependent decoherence-free subspace theory to a Markovian open quantum system in order to present a proposal for a quantum-state engineering program. By quantifying the purity of the quantum state, we verify that the quantum-state engineering process designed via our method is completely unitary within any total engineering time. Even though the controls on the open quantum system are not perfect, the asymptotic purity is still robust. Owing to its ability to completely resist decoherence and the lack of restraint in terms of the total engineering time, our proposal is suitable for multitask quantum-state engineering program. Therefore, this proposal is not only useful for achieving the quantum-state engineering program experimentally, it also helps us build both a quantum simulation and quantum information equipment in reality. © 2015 American Physical Society. Source

Ruan C.-J.,Dalian Nationalities University | da Silva J.A.T.,Kagawa University
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

Reproductive assurance is a widely accepted explanation for the evolution of selfing, although theory suggests that an evolutionarily stable mixed mating strategy does not maximize seed production. We present a correlation analysis involving 28 species representing 23 families showing that selfing can evolve independently of inbreeding depression. We discuss the cost-benefit trade-off of selfing, in particular the incongruence of whether delayed selfing provides reproductive assurance in 22 species representing 14 families, in which pollen and seed discounting are minimized when pollinators or mates are scarce. Reproductive assurance, in response to frequent pollinator failure, can be reconciled with an evolutionarily stable mixed mating system contributed to by delayed selfing, which is still advantageous even if there is strong inbreeding depression. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Li B.-H.,Dalian Nationalities University | Chang C.-T.,National Cheng Kung University
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2010

It has been well-established that the energy and capital costs of a heat exchanger network are both dependent upon the minimum allowable temperature approach ΔTmin. As a result of the rapidly growing oil prices in recent years, there appears to be an urgent need to retrofit the existing "optimal" networks so as to reduce the current utility consumption rates with smaller ΔTmin values. A simple pinch-based approach is proposed here to accomplish this task while keeping additional capital investment to a reasonable level. In particular, every cross-pinch match is removed, and its heat loads on the hot and cold streams are both divided into two according to the pinch temperatures. At either side of the pinch, the divided heat loads on each stream are combined and then matched according to a systematic procedure derived from simple pinch analysis. Two examples are provided to illustrate this procedure. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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