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Zhang Z.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | Zhang Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhao Z.K.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | Zhao Z.K.,Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

Production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from lignocellulosic biomass was studied in ionic liquid in the presence of CrCl3 under microwave irradiation. Corn stalk, rice straw and pine wood treated under typical reaction conditions produced HMF and furfural in yields of 45-52% and 23-31%, respectively, within 3 min. This method should be valuable to facilitate energy-efficient and cost-effective conversion of biomass into biofuels and platform chemicals. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tian Z.,CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics | Tian Z.,Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy | Kass S.R.,University of Minnesota
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Carbanions are anions that have a carbon center with an unshared pair of electrons and a formal negative charge. Understanding the reactivity of carbanions is challenging because it depends upon the associated metal and is sensitive to additives, the solvent, temperature, and concentration. Complications in solution due to solvation, counterion effects, and aggregation have hindered our understanding of these species. As a result, the intrinsic reactivity and properties of isolated and truly free carbanions in the gas phase are of interest. Versatile synthetic strategies have been developed for the preparation of a wide variety of gaseous carbanions. This has enabled the reactivities and thermodynamic properties of many carbanions to be experimentally determined. Moreover, because the electron can be viewed as the simplest protecting group, the reactivities and energetics of neutral species such as radicals, biradicals, carbenes, and other fleetingly stable species also can be explored.

Kang G.-D.,Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy | Cao Y.-M.,Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2014

Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes have been extensively applied to scientific research and industrial process due to its outstanding properties such as high thermal stability, good chemical resistance and membrane forming properties. This article provides an overview of recent progress on the application and modification of PVDF membranes. The applications include water treatment, membrane distillation, gas separation, pollutants removal, bioethanol recovery, separator for lithium ion battery, support for preparing composite membranes, etc. Subsequently, on the basis of two major problems of PVDF membranes in applications, i.e., membrane fouling and membrane wetting, the hydrophilic modification and hydrophobic modification methods are comprehensively reviewed. Finally, the key issues associated with the modification of PVDF membranes for actual applications are discussed. This paper may provide an insight for the development of PVDF membranes in future. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Kang G.-D.,Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy | Cao Y.-M.,Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy
Water Research | Year: 2012

With the rapidly increasing demands on water resources, fresh water shortage has become an important issue affecting the economic and social development in many countries. As one of the main technologies for producing fresh water from saline water and other wastewater sources, reverse osmosis (RO) has been widely used so far. However, a major challenge facing widespread application of RO technology is membrane fouling, which results in reduced production capacity and increased operation costs. Therefore, many researches have been focused on enhancing the RO membrane resistance to fouling. This paper presents a review of developing antifouling RO membranes in recent years, including the selection of new starting monomers, improvement of interfacial polymerization process, surface modification of conventional RO membrane by physical and chemical methods as well as the hybrid organic/inorganic RO membrane. The review of research progress in this article may provide an insight for the development of antifouling RO membranes and extend the applications of RO technology in water treatment in the future. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Men Y.,Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy | Yang M.,Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy
Catalysis Communications | Year: 2012

A series of NiZnAl catalysts have been developed for the hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming within microchannel reactor. These catalysts were characterized by N 2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, H 2-TPR and pulse H 2-chemisorption. Our results show that the coexistence of Ni and Zn in bimetallic catalysts results in superior catalytic performance for hydrogen production compared with monometallic catalysts, despite the fact the former possesses the lower surface area. The difference between the catalytic performances could mainly be attributed to the Ni promotion effect associated with SMSI-like geometric effects and interpreted by a hypothesized encapsulation model corroborated by the characterizations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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