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Bandiera G.,University of Toronto | LeBlanc C.,DalhousieUniversity | Regehr G.,University of British Columbia | Snell L.,McGill University | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2014

Emergency medicine (EM) is defined, in part, by clinical excellence across an immense breadth of content and the provision of exemplary bedside teaching to a wide variety of learners. The specialty is also well-suited to a number of emerging areas of education scholarship, particularly in relation to team-based learning, clinical reasoning, acute care response, and simulation-based teaching. The success of EM education scholarship will be predicated on systematic, collective attention to providing the infrastructure for this to occur. Specifically, as a new generation of emergency physicians prepares for education careers, academic organizations need to develop means not only to identify potential scholars but also to mentor, support, and encourage their careers. This paper summarizes the supporting literature and presents related recommendations from a 2013 consensus conference on EM education scholarship led by the Academic Section of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians. Source


Jurgens T.M.,DalhousieUniversity
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Preparations of green tea are used as aids in weight loss and weight maintenance. Catechins and caffeine, both contained in green tea, are each believed to have a role in increasing energy metabolism, which may lead to weight loss. A number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the role of green tea in weight loss have been published; however, the efficacy of green tea preparations in weight loss remains unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of green tea preparations for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults. We searched the following databases from inception to specified date as well as reference lists of relevant articles: The Cochrane Library (Issue 12, 2011), MEDLINE (December 2011), EMBASE (December 2011), CINAHL (January 2012), AMED (January 2012), Biological Abstracts (January 2012), IBIDS (August 2010), Obesity+ (January 2012), IPA (January 2012) and Web of Science (December 2011). Current Controlled Trials with links to other databases of ongoing trials was also searched. RCTs of at least 12 weeks' duration comparing green tea preparations to a control in overweight or obese adults. Three authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and quality, with differences resolved by consensus. Heterogeneity of included studies was assessed visually using forest plots and quantified using the I(2) statistic. We synthesised data using meta-analysis and descriptive analysis as appropriate; subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Adverse effects reported in studies were recorded. Due to the level of heterogeneity among studies, studies were divided into two groups; those conducted in Japan and those conducted outside Japan. Study length ranged between 12 and 13 weeks. Meta-analysis of six studies conducted outside Japan showed a mean difference (MD) in weight loss of -0.04 kg (95% CI -0.5 to 0.4; P = 0.88; I(2) = 18%; 532 participants). The eight studies conducted in Japan were not similar enough to allow pooling of results and MD in weight loss ranged from -0.2 kg to -3.5 kg (1030 participants) in favour of green tea preparations. Meta-analysis of studies measuring change in body mass index (BMI) conducted outside Japan showed a MD in BMI of -0.2 kg/m(2) (95% CI -0.5 to 0.1; P = 0.21; I(2) = 38%; 222 participants). Differences among the eight studies conducted in Japan did not allow pooling of results and showed a reduction in BMI ranging from no effect to -1.3 kg/m(2) (1030 participants), in favour of green tea preparations over control. Meta-analysis of five studies conducted outside Japan and measuring waist circumference reported a MD of -0.2 cm (95% CI -1.4 to 0.9; P = 0.70; I(2) = 58%; 404 participants). Differences among the eight studies conducted in Japan did not allow pooling of results and showed effects on waist circumference ranging from a gain of 1 cm to a loss of 3.3 cm (1030 participants). Meta-analysis for three weight loss studies, conducted outside Japan, with waist-to-hip ratio data (144 participants) yielded no significant change (MD 0; 95% CI -0.02 to 0.01). Analysis of two studies conducted to determine if green tea could help to maintain weight after a period of weight loss (184 participants) showed a change in weight loss of 0.6 to -1.6 kg, a change in BMI from 0.2 to -0.5 kg/m(2) and a change in waist circumference from 0.3 to -1.7 cm. In the eight studies that recorded adverse events, four reported adverse events that were mild to moderate, with the exception of two (green tea preparations group) that required hospitalisation (reported as not associated with the intervention). Nine studies reported on compliance/adherence, one study assessed attitude towards eating as part of the health-related quality of life outcome. No studies reported on patient satisfaction, morbidity or cost. Green tea preparations appear to induce a small, statistically non-significant weight loss in overweight or obese adults. Because the amount of weight loss is small, it is not likely to be clinically important. Green tea had no significant effect on the maintenance of weight loss. Of those studies recording information on adverse events, only two identified an adverse event requiring hospitalisation. The remaining adverse events were judged to be mild to moderate. Source


Radic J.A.E.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Radic J.A.E.,DalhousieUniversity | Chou S.H.-Y.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Du R.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Lee J.W.,Brigham and Womens Hospital
Neurocritical Care | Year: 2014

Background: Although both levetiracetam and phenytoin are used for seizure prophylaxis in subdural hematomas (SDHs), there is little data on their comparative efficacies. We compared the efficacy and risk of using levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis following acute or subacute SDH diagnosis.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, the clinical data registry at a tertiary care hospital was searched for all cases of acute or subacute SDHs that were admitted to hospital in 2002, 2003, or 2011. Risk of clinical and/or electrographic seizures, and risk of adverse drug events were compared between the two exposure arms.Results: 124 subjects in the phenytoin arm and 164 subjects in the levetiracetam arm were included. There was no significant difference in clinical and/or electrographic seizure risk, though there was a decreased risk of adverse events in the levetiracetam arm (p < 0.001). In subjects with midline shift >0 mm, levetiracetam was associated with an increased risk of electrographic seizures during hospitalization (p = 0.028) and a decreased risk of adverse drug effects (p = 0.001), compared with phenytoin use.Conclusions: Levetiracetam generally appears to have a similar efficacy to phenytoin in preventing clinical and/or electrographic seizures following acute/subacute SDH diagnosis, though patients with midline shift >0 mm may have associated with a higher risk of electrographic seizures on levetiracetam compared with patients on phenytoin. Levetiracetam is associated with a lower risk of adverse drug effects. A prospective, randomized study would more definitively determine any difference in efficacy and risk between phenytoin and levetiracetam. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Hystad P.,University of British Columbia | Setton E.,University of Victoria | Cervantes A.,University of British Columbia | Poplawski K.,University of British Columbia | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2011

Background: Population exposure assessment methods that capture local-scale pollutant variability are needed for large-scale epidemiological studies and surveillance, policy, and regulatory purposes. Currently, such exposure methods are limited. Methods: We created 2006 national pollutant models for fine particulate matter [PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5)], nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), benzene, ethylbenzene, and 1,3-butadiene from routinely collected fixed-site monitoring data in Canada. In multiple regression models, we incorporated satellite estimates and geographic predictor variables to capture background and regional pollutant variation and used deterministic gradients to capture local-scale variation. The national NO 2 and benzene models are evaluated with independent measurements from previous land use regression models that were conducted in seven Canadian cities. National models are applied to census block-face points, each of which represents the location of approximately 89 individuals, to produce estimates of population exposure. Results: The national NO 2 model explained 73% of the variability in fixed-site monitor concentrations, PM 2.5 46%, benzene 62%, ethylbenzene 67%, and 1,3-butadiene 68%. The NO 2 model predicted, on average, 43% of the within-city variability in the independent NO 2 data compared with 18% when using inverse distance weighting of fixed-site monitoring data. Benzene models performed poorly in predicting within-city benzene variability. Based on our national models, we estimated Canadian ambient annual average population-weighted exposures (in micrograms per cubic meter) of 8.39 for PM 2.5, 23.37 for NO 2, 1.04 for benzene, 0.63 for ethylbenzene, and 0.09 for 1,3-butadiene. Conclusions: The national pollutant models created here improve exposure assessment compared with traditional monitor-based approaches by capturing both regional and local-scale pollution variation. Applying national models to routinely collected population location data can extend land use modeling techniques to population exposure assessment and to informing surveillance, policy, and regulation. Source


Reid J.M.,Royal Infirmary | Dai D.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | Cheripelli B.,University of Glasgow | Christian C.,DalhousieUniversity | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Stroke | Year: 2015

Debate exists as to whether wake-up stroke (WUS) (i.e. symptoms first noted on waking) differs from stroke developing while awake [awake onset stroke (AOS)]. Unknown onset stroke (UOS) with unclear symptom onset time is infrequently studied. Aims: This study aimed to examine differences in stroke characteristics and outcomes in these three groups. Methods: The stroke registry database from Halifax Infirmary, Canada, was interrogated for hospitalised stroke patients between 1999-2011. Information was available on demographics, stroke characteristics, and functional status at discharge and six months (modified Rankin score [mRS]). Results: Of 3890 patients, 65% had AOS, 21% WUS and 14% UOS. UOS patients were significantly older, more commonly female and living alone than AOS patients, with no difference between AOS and WUS. UOS rates increased from 10 to 16% of patients during the study period (P<0·0001). UOS but not WUS had a higher stroke severity than AOS. Intracerebral hemorrhage was less common (9 vs. 13%) and lacunar stroke more common (23 vs. 19%) in WUS compared to AOS. In UOS left hemisphere location was more likely, and lacunar stroke less common. Excellent outcomes were slightly lower for WUS. UOS had significantly higher rates of in-hospital mortality (23 vs. 16%, P<0·0001) and poorer functional outcome six months after stroke (mRS<3 in 26% of UOS and 46% of AOS, P=0·02). Conclusion: WUS has lower rates of ICH but similar stroke severity and outcomes to AOS. UOS prevalence appears to be increasing, with higher stroke severity and worse prognosis. © 2014 World Stroke Organization. Source

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