Halifax, Canada
Halifax, Canada

Dalhousie University is a public research university in Nova Scotia, Canada, with three campuses in Halifax, and a fourth in Bible Hill. Dalhousie offers more than 4,000 courses and 180 degree programs in twelve undergraduate, graduate, and professional faculties. The university is a member of the U15, a group of research-intensive universities in Canada.Dalhousie was established as a nonsectarian college in 1818 by the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie, after whom the university was named. The college did not hold its first class until 1838, until then operating sporadically due to financial difficulties. It reopened for a third time in 1863 following a reorganization which brought a change of name to "The Governors of Dalhousie College and University". The university formally changed its name to "Dalhousie University" in 1997 through provincial legislation, the same legislation which had merged the institution with the Technical University of Nova Scotia.The Dalhousie library system currently operates the largest library in Atlantic Canada, as well as holds the largest collection of agricultural resource material in the region. The university operates a total of fourteen residences. There are currently two student unions that represent student interests at the university, the Dalhousie Student Union, and the Dalhousie Association for Graduate Students. Dalhousie's varsity teams, the Tigers, compete in the Atlantic University Sport conference of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Dalhousie’s Faculty of Agriculture varsity teams are the Dalhousie Rams, and compete in the ACAA and CCAA.Dalhousie is a coeducational university with more than 18,000 students and over 110,000 alumni. Notable alumni include government officials, academics, business leaders and 89 Rhodes Scholars. The university ranked 244th in the 2013 QS World University Rankings, 251-275th in the 2012-2013 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and 201–300th in the 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities. Dalhousie is a centre for marine research, and is host to the headquarters of the Ocean Tracking Network. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Dalhousie University | Date: 2016-10-28

The present invention provides a method for removing a tattoo in a region of skin the method comprises administering to a least a portion of the tattoo, and a composition comprising an effective amount of a bisphosphonate and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient to at least cause fading of the tattoo in said region.


Patent
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Dalhousie University | Date: 2016-08-09

Amblyopia is a prevalent form of visual impairment that generally arises during infancy and early childhood when inputs to the visual cortex form the two eyes are poorly balanced. Disclosed herein are methods involving retinal inactivation of at least one retina to treat visual impairment in the form of amblyopia or other conditions.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BG-08-2014 | Award Amount: 20.65M | Year: 2015

The overarching objective of AtlantOS is to achieve a transition from a loosely-coordinated set of existing ocean observing activities to a sustainable, efficient, and fit-for-purpose Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System (IAOOS), by defining requirements and systems design, improving the readiness of observing networks and data systems, and engaging stakeholders around the Atlantic; and leaving a legacy and strengthened contribution to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). AtlantOS will fill existing in-situ observing system gaps and will ensure that data are readily accessible and useable. AtlantOS will demonstrate the utility of integrating in-situ and Earth observing satellite based observations towards informing a wide range of sectors using the Copernicus Marine Monitoring Services and the European Marine Observation and Data Network and connect them with similar activities around the Atlantic. AtlantOS will support activities to share, integrate and standardize in-situ observations, reduce the cost by network optimization and deployment of new technologies, and increase the competitiveness of European industries, and particularly of the small and medium enterprises of the marine sector. AtlantOS will promote innovation, documentation and exploitation of innovative observing systems. All AtlantOS work packages will strengthen the trans-Atlantic collaboration, through close interaction with partner institutions from Canada, United States, and the South Atlantic region. AtlantOS will develop a results-oriented dialogue with key stakeholders communities to enable a meaningful exchange between the products and services that IAOOS can deliver and the demands and needs of the stakeholder communities. Finally, AtlantOS will establish a structured dialogue with funding bodies, including the European Commission, USA, Canada and other countries to ensure sustainability and adequate growth of IAOOS.


Obrovac M.N.,Dalhousie University | Chevrier V.L.,3M
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Most studies set out to make materials that improve on the specific capacity of graphite, usually without regard to average voltage, volumetric capacity, or the many other properties listed above that are more applicable to implementation in practical cells. One difficulty in choosing proper metrics for anodes stems from basic electrochemistry: it is not possible to calculate the energy of a single electrode. To provide motivation for using alloy anode materials and a framework for comparison, key performance metrics need to be defined. It is well-known that the volumetric and specific capacities of the active elements are far greater than that of graphite. Because all alloys expand considerably during lithiation, this volume must be accommodated somewhere within a battery. To make more informative performance comparisons, it is necessary to use a cell model, preferably one that is most representative of alloy materials application.


Gray M.W.,Dalhousie University
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2014

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is unquestionably the remnant of an a-proteobacterial genome, yet only 10%-20% of mitochondrial proteins are demonstrably a-proteobacterial in origin (the "a-proteobacterial component," or APC). The evolutionary ancestry of the nona- proteobacterial component (NPC) is obscure and not adequately accounted for in current models of mitochondrial origin. I propose that in the host cell that accommodated an aproteobacterial endosymbiont, much of the NPC was already present, in the form of a membrane-bound metabolic organelle (the premitochondrion) that compartmentalized many of the non-energy-generating functions of the contemporary mitochondrion. I suggest that this organelle also possessed a protein import system and various ion and small-molecule transporters. In such a scenario, an a-proteobacterial endosymbiont could have been converted relatively directly and rapidly into an energy-generating organelle that incorporated the extant metabolic functions of the premitochondrion. This model (the "preendosymbiont hypothesis") effectively represents a synthesis of previous, contending mitochondrial origin hypotheses, with the bulk of the mitochondrial proteome (much of the NPC) having an endogenous origin and the minority component (the APC) having a xenogenous origin. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.


Cullen J.J.,Dalhousie University
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2015

The phenomenon of subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers (SCMLs) is not a unique ecological response to environmental conditions; rather, a broad range of interacting processes can contribute to the formation of persistent layers of elevated chlorophyll a concentration (Chl) that are nearly ubiquitous in stratified surface waters. Mechanisms that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the SCMLs include a local maximum in phytoplankton growth rate near the nutricline, photoacclimation of pigment content that leads to elevated Chl relative to phytoplankton biomass at depth, and a range of physiologically influenced swimming behaviors in motile phytoplankton and buoyancy control in diatoms and cyanobacteria that can lead to aggregations of phytoplankton in layers, subject to grazing and physical control. A postulated typical stable water structure characterizes consistent patterns in vertical profiles of Chl, phytoplankton biomass, nutrients, and light across a trophic gradient structured by the vertical flux of nutrients and characterized by the average daily irradiance at the nutricline. Hypothetical predictions can be tested using a nascent biogeochemical global ocean observing system. Partial results to date are generally consistent with predictions based on current knowledge, which has strong roots in research from the twentieth century. Copyright © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Ridgway N.D.,Dalhousie University
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

The reorganization of metabolic pathways in cancer facilitates the flux of carbon and reducing equivalents into anabolic pathways at the expense of oxidative phosphorylation. This provides rapidly dividing cells with the necessary precursors for membrane, protein and nucleic acid synthesis. A fundamental metabolic perturbation in cancer is the enhanced synthesis of fatty acids by channeling glucose and/or glutamine into cytosolic acetyl-CoA and upregulation of key biosynthetic genes. This lipogenic phenotype also extends to the production of complex lipids involved in membrane synthesis and lipid-based signaling. Cancer cells display sensitivity to ablation of fatty acid synthesis possibly as a result of diminished capacity to synthesize complex lipids involved in signaling or growth pathways. Evidence has accrued that phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid component of eukaryotic membranes, as well as choline metabolites derived from its synthesis and catabolism, contribute to both proliferative growth and programmed cell death. This review will detail our current understanding of how coordinated changes in substrate availability, gene expression and enzyme activity lead to altered phosphatidylcholine synthesis in cancer, and how these changes contribute directly or indirectly to malignant growth. Conversely, apoptosis targets key steps in phosphatidylcholine synthesis and degradation that are linked to disruption of cell cycle regulation, reinforcing the central role that phosphatidylcholine and its metabolites in determining cell fate. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Gray M.W.,Dalhousie University
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2012

Viewed through the lens of the genome it contains, the mitochondrion is of unquestioned bacterial ancestry, originating from within the bacterial phylum a-Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria). Accordingly, the endosymbiont hypothesis-the idea that the mitochondrion evolved from a bacterial progenitor via symbiosis within an essentially eukaryotic host cell-has assumed the status of a theory. Yet mitochondrial genome evolution has taken radically different pathways in diverse eukaryotic lineages, and the organelle itself is increasingly viewed as a genetic and functional mosaic, with the bulk of the mitochondrial proteome having an evolutionary origin outside Alphaproteobacteria. New data continue to reshape our views regarding mitochondrial evolution, particularly raising the question of whether the mitochondrion originated after the eukaryotic cell arose, as assumed in the classical endosymbiont hypothesis, or whether this organelle had its beginning at the same time as the cell containing it. © 2012 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.


Myles S.,Dalhousie University
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2013

Will we still be drinking wines made from Pinot Noir and eating McIntosh apples in the 23rd century? Elite grape and apple cultivars, vegetatively propagated for centuries, are highly susceptible to evolving pathogens. In response, growers continually expand their agrochemical weaponry at enormous environmental costs. By contrast, breeders are seeking disease-resistant, tastier alternatives to the handful of dominant cultivars by exploring genetic diversity in these fruits. However, this is a formidable task because consumers cling to ancient cultivars, and breeding long-lived woody perennials is laborious and expensive. Although genomics tools may not solve the former sociocultural dilemma, they can help overcome the latter practical obstacles. Screening seedlings for desirable genetic profiles using molecular techniques reduces the time and high costs associated with growing plants to maturity and evaluating fruit. Such screening is currently in its infancy in apples and grapes, but the adoption of modern DNA sequencing technologies and statistical approaches promises to accelerate cultivar improvement significantly. Here, I describe standard approaches for molecular breeding in apples and grapes, and some of the challenges associated with the collection and analysis of next-generation DNA sequence data. In addition, I urge breeders to establish populations specifically designed for a future of inexpensive genome sequencing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hanly J.G.,Dalhousie University
Nature Reviews Rheumatology | Year: 2014

Nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can manifest as a range of neurological and psychiatric features, which are classified using the ACR case definitions for 19 neuropsychiatric syndromes. Approximately one-third of all neuropsychiatric syndromes in patients with SLE are primary manifestations of SLE-related autoimmunity, with seizure disorders, cerebrovascular disease, acute confusional state and neuropathy being the most common. Such primary neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) events are a consequence either of microvasculopathy and thrombosis, or of autoantibodies and inflammatory mediators. Diagnosis of NPSLE requires the exclusion of other causes, and clinical assessment directs the selection of appropriate investigations. These investigations include measurement of autoantibodies, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, electrophysiological studies, neuropsychological assessment and neuroimaging to evaluate brain structure and function. Treatment involves the management of comorbidities contributing to the neuropsychiatric event, use of symptomatic therapies, and more specific interventions with either anticoagulation or immunosuppressive agents, depending upon the primary immunopathogenetic mechanism. Although the prognosis is variable, studies suggest a more favourable outcome for primary NPSLE manifestations compared with neuropsychiatric events attributable to non-SLE causes. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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