Mitchell, SD, United States
Mitchell, SD, United States

Dakota Wesleyan University is a four-year university located in Mitchell, South Dakota, founded in 1885, that is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. The student body averages slightly fewer than 800 students. The campus of the university is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Wikipedia.


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Bhat S.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Folimonova S.Y.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Folimonova S.Y.,University of Florida | Cole A.B.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | And 6 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) forms dense cytoplasmic bodies containing replication-associated proteins (virus replication complexes [VRCs]) upon infection. To identify host proteins that interact with individual viral components of VRCs or VRCs in toto, we isolated viral replicase- and VRC-enriched fractions from TMV-infected Nicotiana tabacum plants. Two host proteins in enriched fractions, ATP-synthase g-subunit (AtpC) and Rubisco activase (RCA) were identified by matrix-assisted laserdesorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Through pulldown analysis, RCA bound predominantly to the region between the methyltransferase and helicase domains of the TMV replicase. Tobamovirus, but not Cucumber mosaic virus or Potato virus X, infection of N. tabacum plants resulted in 50% reductions in Rca and AtpC messenger RNA levels. To investigate the role of these host proteins in TMV accumulation and plant defense, we used a Tobacco rattle virus vector to silence these genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants prior to challenge with TMV expressing green fluorescent protein. TMV-induced fluorescent lesions on Rca- or AtpC-silenced leaves were, respectively, similar or twice the size of those on leaves expressing these genes. Silencing Rca and AtpC did not influence the spread of Tomato bushy stunt virus and Potato virus X. In AtpC- and Rca-silenced leaves TMV accumulation and pathogenicity were greatly enhanced, suggesting a role of both host-encoded proteins in a defense response against TMV. In addition, silencing these host genes altered the phenotype of the TMV infection foci and VRCs, yielding foci with concentric fluorescent rings and dramatically more but smaller VRCs. The concentric rings occurred through renewed virus accumulation internal to the infection front. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.


Patrick L.B.,Dakota Wesleyan University | Kershner M.W.,Kent State University | Fraser L.H.,Thompson Rivers University
Journal of Arachnology | Year: 2012

Recent studies of nutrient additions to terrestrial ecosystems have focused on the "aerial" portion of the food web associated with living plants. These studies showed nutrient loading increased arthropod abundance and biomass, but decreased diversity. However, none of these studies explicitly examined nutrient loading effects on epigeal arthropods. To test nutrient loading effects on epigeal spiders and on individual species within a temperate-latitude grassland community, we used pitfall traps to sample spiders for four years within 24 large (314 m2) plots in which we manipulated nutrients (NPK fertilizer) and plant litter (litter removed or left in place). We measured the diversity, abundance, biomass, and community structure responses of the spider community, and of wolf spiders (Lycosidae) and linyphiid spiders (Linyphiidae), as well as the abundance and biomass responses of the six most common species. We hypothesized increased nutrient loading would increase epigeal spider abundance and biomass but decrease diversity. Contrary to predictions, spider species richness, diversity, and biomass were not significantly affected by fertilization, while fertilization resulted in significantly increased abundance. Also contrary to predictions, plant litter did not affect any of these variables. Linyphiid spiders had the strongest responses to fertilization, with significantly increased abundance and biomass, and, contrary to predictions, increased species richness in fertilized plots. Wolf spiders responded more closely to predictions. Our results indicate that the epigeal spider community does not respond as would be predicted by biodiversity-productivity theory. This underscores the need to integrate the largely detritus-based epigeal community into current biodiversity-productivity theory.


Patrick L.B.,Dakota Wesleyan University
Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society | Year: 2015

The erigonine linyphiid Erigone autumnalis Emerton, 1882 is reported from New Caledonia for the first time, based on a male specimen found in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History. Additionally, E. neocaledonica Kritscher, 1966 is redescribed based on the only known specimen, the holotype female. Brief descriptions and illustrations of the genitalia are included for both species. © 2015 On the spider Diplura erlandi Allrights received.


Tatina R.,Dakota Wesleyan University
Natural Areas Journal | Year: 2015

Clipping of Vinca minor followed by fall treatment with 2% glyphosate, controlled Vinca minor without adversely affecting Trillium recurvatum or other plant species in a second growth, mesic southern forest in southwestern Michigan.

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