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Pullar D.,DairyCo | Allen N.,EBLEX | Sloyan M.,BPEX
Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2011

Meat and milk production generally gets a bad press when it comes to discussions around climate change and food production. However, with a rising population, a balance has to be found between the environmental cost of producing and the benefits in terms of food security. Consequently, sustainable production is the byword. The beef, sheep meat, pig meat and dairy industries all have specific challenges in work to reduce their environmental impact. This paper examines some of these challenges, the research which has been undertaken into their scale, routes being exploited to improve efficiency and what gains have already been achieved. It also looks at some of the mitigating factors of dairy and livestock production that help mitigate any environmental costs and ensure we are making the most efficient use of available land. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 British Nutrition Foundation.


VanRaden P.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Null D.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Sargolzaei M.,University of Guelph | Wiggans G.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Genomic evaluations for 161,341 Holsteins were computed by using 311,725 of 777,962 markers on the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip (HD). Initial edits with 1,741. HD genotypes from 5 breeds revealed that 636,967 markers were usable but that half were redundant. Holstein genotypes were from 1,510 animals with HD markers, 82,358 animals with 45,187 (50. K) markers, 1,797 animals with 8,031 (8. K) markers, 20,177 animals with 6,836 (6. K) markers, 52,270 animals with 2,683 (3. K) markers, and 3,229 nongenotyped dams (0. K) with >90% of haplotypes imputable because they had 4 or more genotyped progeny. The Holstein HD genotypes were from 1,142 US, Canadian, British, and Italian sires, 196 other sires, 138 cows in a US Department of Agriculture research herd (Beltsville, MD), and 34 other females. Percentages of correctly imputed genotypes were tested by applying the programs findhap and FImpute to a simulated chromosome for an earlier population that had only 1,112 animals with HD genotypes and none with 8. K genotypes. For each chip, 1% of the genotypes were missing and 0.02% were incorrect initially. After imputation of missing markers with findhap, percentages of genotypes correct were 99.9% from HD, 99.0% from 50. K, 94.6% from 6. K, 90.5% from 3. K, and 93.5% from 0. K. With FImpute, 99.96% were correct from HD, 99.3% from 50. K, 94.7% from 6. K, 91.1% from 3. K, and 95.1% from 0. K genotypes. Accuracy for the 3. K and 6. K genotypes further improved by approximately 2 percentage points if imputed first to 50. K and then to HD instead of imputing all genotypes directly to HD. Evaluations were tested by using imputed actual genotypes and August 2008 phenotypes to predict deregressed evaluations of US bulls proven after August 2008. For 28 traits tested, the estimated genomic reliability averaged 61.1% when using 311,725 markers vs. 60.7% when using 45,187 markers vs. 29.6% from the traditional parent average. Squared correlations with future data were slightly greater for 16 traits and slightly less for 12 with HD than with 50. K evaluations. The observed 0.4 percentage point average increase in reliability was less favorable than the 0.9 expected from simulation but was similar to actual gains from other HD studies. The largest HD and 50. K marker effects were often located at very similar positions. The single-breed evaluation tested here and previous single-breed or multibreed evaluations have not produced large gains. Increasing the number of HD genotypes used for imputation above 1,074 did not improve the reliability of Holstein genomic evaluations. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.


Atkinson O.C.D.,Dairy Veterinary Consultancy Ltd. | Speed J.,DairyCo
Cattle Practice | Year: 2014

Mobility scoring cows has two broad functions: 1. A measure of lameness prevalence 2. A method of finding cows for treatment There is potentially a third function: a motivator for producers to reduce lameness. Practically, very few other options exist for both measuring lameness, or for early detection of new lame cows, yet mobility scoring is consistently undervalued by producers, and the practicalities of doing it well are considerable.This short communication (to accompany the workshop) explores some of the challenges vets and producers face implementing mobility scoring, and opportunities for incorporating mobility scoring into a vet practice service offering which can become an integral part of lameness management.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: BBSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 546.67K | Year: 2012

Ruminant animals, including cattle, sheep and goats, rely on microbial activity in their digestive tract to digest grass and other forages that they consume. A balanced, stable digestion (fermentation) is essential for good growth or milk production. Most livestock producers require productivity higher than that which can be sustained by forage feeding alone, and include some grain in the diet to increase production rates. Gut microbes produce acids more rapidly from the starch in grain than the cellulose in forages, leading to lower pH values prevailing in grain-fed animals. This has adverse effects on the microbes, which require near-neutral pH to perform optimally. This sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a major economic and health issue in ruminant livestock production. Animals suffering SARA are less productive, and they suffer from necrosis of the rumen wall, liver abscesses and laminitis. SARA is often difficult for the farmer to detect - it is sub-acute and can only be detected easily at slaughter. SARA is an under-researched condition, such that only a small number of papers have addressed the dietary and microbiological causes of SARA and its underlying pathology, particularly concerning the role of the large intestine. This project aims to understand why SARA is prevalent on some farms but not others, an observation that is common knowledge but not well documented. Farm management conditions and nutrition will be monitored in these farms, and the animals will be followed to slaughter, when the extent of pathological damage will be assessed. Samples of ruminal digesta and wall tissue will be taken for analysis and tissue necrosis, abscesses and laminitis will be scored. SARA also affects some animals but not others within a herd. Remote motion-sensing technology will be used to externally monitor movements, such as rumination activity, that may alert livestock producers to problematic animals. Post mortem analysis will also be carried out on these animals. The root cause of SARA lies in altered gut microbiology. Digesta samples will be taken forward to describe the microbes that are present in the rumen and intestine in susceptible and non-susceptible animals, with the idea that some microbial species may be particularly important in causing the disease while others may be protective. Candidate probiotic bacteria isolated from non-susceptible animals will be investigated with a view to developing them as feed additives. The role of soluble lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the inflammation will be investigated. LPS is released when bacteria lyse - it is known as endotoxin in human medicine. Materials that may bind soluble LPS to prevent inflammation will also be investigated as potential feed additives. The overall aims are to explain the underlying mechanism of pathogenesis of SARA, to investigate if microbiome analysis can predict the severity of SARA, and to develop simple, non-invasive methods for monitoring animal behaviour relating to SARA and preventing the condition. Three academic partners, three complementary companies, Quality Meat Scotland and DairyCo are involved in the project. The industrial partners will ensure that relevance to the livestock industry is maintained throughout the project and that the pathway to impact will be short and rapid.


Huxley J.N.,University of Nottingham | Archer S.C.,University of Nottingham | Atkinson O.C.D.,Dairy Veterinary Consultancy Ltd. | Bell N.J.,Lane College | And 11 more authors.
Cattle Practice | Year: 2014

Lameness in dairy cattle remains at unacceptably high levels. The claw horn lesions (sole haemorrhage/ sole ulceration and white line disease) are two of the most important causes of lameness in the UK. Prompt identification and early and effective treatment to reduce the period over which animals are lame is one of the corner stones of reducing prevalence on farm. This paper will review recent work conducted on the treatment of claw horn lesions in dairy cattle and identify challenges which must be overcome to ensure these important diseases are effectively managed on farm.

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