Naivasha, Kenya
Naivasha, Kenya

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Kamau S.M.,Jiangnan University | Kamau S.M.,Dairy Training Institute | Cheison S.C.,TU Munich | Cheison S.C.,Maseno University | And 3 more authors.
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2010

Alpha-lactalbumin (α-La), a globular protein found in all mammalian milk, has been used as an ingredient in infant formulas. The protein can be isolated from milk using chromatography/gel filtration, membrane separation, enzyme hydrolysis, and precipitation/aggregation technologies. α-La is appreciated as a source of peptideswith antitumor and apoptosis, antiulcerative, immunemodulating, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, opioid, mineral binding, and antioxidative bioactivities, whichmay be utilized in the production of functional foods. Nanotubes formed by the protein could find applications in foods and pharmaceuticals, and understanding its amyloid fibrils is important in drawing strategies for controlling amyloidal diseases. Bioactive peptides in α-La are released during the fermentation or ripening of dairy products by starter and nonstartermicroorganisms and during digestion by gastric enzymes. Bioactive peptides are also produced by deliberate hydrolysis of α-La using animal, microbial, or plant proteases. The occurrence, structure, and production technologies of α-La and its bioactive peptides are reviewed. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®.


Kamau S.M.,Jiangnan University | Kamau S.M.,Dairy Training Institute | Lu R.-R.,Jiangnan University | Chen W.,Jiangnan University | And 4 more authors.
Food Reviews International | Year: 2010

Bioactive peptides can be defined as protein fragments with potential biological activities. Milk proteins are precursors of many different biologically active peptides. Bioactive peptides from milk proteins are considered potential modulators of various regulatory processes in the body. They mediate physiological functions in cardiovascular, nervous, gastro intestinal and immune systems. The functional significance of bioactivities depends on peptide fragment. Bioactive peptides encrypted in major milk proteins are latent within the sequence of the parent protein molecule. They can be liberated by (i) gastro intestinal digestion of milk, (ii) fermentation of milk with proteolytic starter cultures, and (iii) hydrolysis by proteolytic enzymes. In relation to their mode of action, bioactive peptides may reach target sites at the luminal side of intestinal tract, or after absorption, in peripheral organs. The production, functionalities, and mode of action of bioactive milk peptides as well as latest peptide products and ingredients are reviewed. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Zhang Q.-X.,Jiangnan University | Ling Y.-F.,Jiangnan University | Sun Z.,Jiangnan University | Zhang L.,Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2012

The protective effect of whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) against H2O2-induced oxidative damage on rat pheochromocytoma line 12 (PC12) cells was studied. Whey protein was hydrolyzed by pepsin and trypsin and purified by macrospore absorption resins. PC12 cells were pretreated with WPHs (from 369 to 1,980 Da) at different concentrations for 2 h, then washed and incubated with 100 μM H2O2 in the presence of WPHs for another 24 h. With 100-400 μg WPH/ml the viable cells increased by 20-30 % when incubated with H2O2 suggesting that they may play a role as antioxidant in foods. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Mutua S.M.,Dairy Training Institute | Guliye A.Y.,Egerton University | Bebe B.O.,Egerton University | Kahi A.K.,Egerton University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

A purposive random sampling survey of 78 respondents was conducted in Nakuru district between September 2009 and April 2010 to determine the linkages in ration formulation goals. Specifically the study examined least cost of ingredients (LCI), maximum milk profit margins (MPM) and minimum Phosphorous (P)-excretion (MPE); representing economic, production and environmental goals respectively, as perceived by actors in the feed milling industry. Interview schedules were conducted to solicit data from the feed industry actors on a 5-point Likert scale. Data were analysed for correlation and mean difference (One-way ANOVA) using SPSS for windows, Release 10.01 (1999). A post-hoc analysis (Tukey's HSD), calculated specific mean pair differences. Rank correlations were moderate and significant between (LCI and MPM); p < 0.05 and (MPM and MPE); p < 0.05, within feed millers, between (MPM and MPE); p <0.05 within dairy farmers and between (LCI and MPM); p < 0.05 within KEBS. There were no significant correlations between LCI, MPM, and MPE within NEMA. Correlations between ingredients cost and nutrient excretion did not exist for the entire stakeholder groups. Mean differences for economic, production, and environmental formulation goals between the industry actors were significantly different (p = 0.00). Results revealed a lack of strong associations between the three critical ration formulation goals among industry stakeholders; representing an underlying limitation in dairy feed manufacturing decision-making process. Solutions to this limitation will include innovations towards the development of broad-based multiple ration formulation approaches that attempt to collectively optimise stakeholder needs step-wise. Determination of such relationships is important to livestock development partners in their effort to formulate policies in feed milling for the benefit of sustainable dairy entrepreneurship.


PubMed | Dairy Training Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Veterinary quarterly | Year: 2015

Natural autoantibodies (N(a)ab) were found in every species tested so far, and are likely important in maintaining homeostasis.(1) To determine N(a)ab in Bos taurus calves, (2) evaluate effects of diet and age on N(a)ab binding repertoires in calves, and (3) delineate bovine liver cell lysate (BLL) antigens related with variation in rumen score and body weight.Effects of age and diet on staining of BLL fragments by IgM and IgG antibodies in serum samples collected at 20 or at 26 weeks of age from bull calves either fed a restricted or ad libitum diet were analyzed using quantitative Western blotting. Correlations between fragments stained and grouping of calves were done by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Redundancy analysis (RDA) was done to relate rumen score and body weight variation at slaughter at 27 weeks of age with stained BLL fragments.In sera from all calves IgM and IgG antibodies binding BLL antigens were found. Corresponding fragments were stained, but quantitative differences in staining intensities were related to diet and age for both IgM and IgG. PCA revealed that age had a greater influence than diet on BLL fragment staining. RDA suggested that staining by IgM or IgG of specific BLL fragments was related with variation in rumen score and body weight.Analyses of N(a)ab in serum could be a potential tool to estimate the health status of cattle, and be used to evaluate effects of husbandry practices.

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