Gulbarga, India
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Giri A.,National Dairy Research Institute | Rao H.G.R.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Ramesh V.,Dairy Science College
International Journal of Dairy Technology | Year: 2013

In 50% sugar replaced with 0.05% stevia-added Kulfi, whey protein concentrate (WPC) at 0, 2, 3 and 4% levels were separately incorporated. Increase in WPC level resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decrease in freezing point, melting rate, hardness and moisture percentage and significant (P < 0.05) increase in specific gravity, protein percentage and total calorie content in the product. Among 0, 2, 3 and 4% WPC-added Kulfi, 3% WPC-added Kulfi was adjudged as best by a panel of judges. Above 3% WPC addition, the product was very soft and possessed undesirable whey flavour. © 2012 Society of Dairy Technology.


Schober Y.,Justus Liebig University | Yoo S.H.,Konkuk University | Paik H.-D.,Konkuk University | Park E.J.,Kyungnam University | And 4 more authors.
Milchwissenschaft | Year: 2012

This investigation was carried out to evaluate the extent of bioactive peptides that can be obtained from proteolytic enzymes, including alcalase, flavorzyme, neutrase, and protamax. For this purpose, whey protein concentrate (WPC) was hydrolyzed, spray-dried, and subjected to mass spectrometric analysis. In addition, offline-electrospray-ionizationmass spectrometry (ESI/MS) measurements and offline-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI/MS) measurements were compared to determine analytical adequacy. Samples treated with alcalase for 3 hours produced various bioactive peptides, suggesting the possible application of this method to functional food preparations. Comparison of both ionization methods indicated ESI/MS as suitable for the identification of peptides from whey protein hydrolysates.


Shirur M.,Mushroom | Shivalingegowda N.S.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore | Chandregowda M.J.,Zonal Project Direct. ICAR | Rajkumar B.J.,Dairy Science College
International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences | Year: 2015

Mushrooms are appreciated world over for their nutritional and medicinal properties. Though, global mushroom industry has seen a rapid growth, India is beginning to see the spurt in its growth only recently. Mushroom entrepreneurship offers major scope both for small farmers and large entrepreneurs. Absence of standardised scale to measure the performance of mushroom entrepreneurs has rendered us unclear about the status of mushroom entrepreneurship and in turn the mushroom industry in India. Hence, a scale on mushroom entrepreneurial behaviour is developed to address the existing research gap. The social research methodology using Guilford procedure was followed to develop the scale. The eleven dimensions of entrepreneurial behaviour assumed different scale values from 7.469 to 1.071, with innovativeness of entrepreneurs getting highest weightage. The scale developed will have utility in identifying and studying the successful and unsuccessful mushroom entrepreneurs in framing policies by the Government and designing trainings and seminars by training and research institutions. The researchers of social sciences will find the scale useful for studying entrepreneurial behaviour of mushroom growers and similar entrepreneurs. The financial institutions can adopt the scale in deciding criteria for extending the loans to the newentrepreneurs. The entrepreneurs themselvesmayuse the scale toassess their own entrepreneurial skills.


Latha K.V.A.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Bhat A.R.S.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Achoth L.,Dairy Science College
International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences | Year: 2012

Decomposition models are models that are helpful in the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors where segregation of component elements is important. In agricultural research institutions of various countries, composition models have been applied to study the contribution of component elements in the change of crops output. And this research is limited to the component analysis of crop research, more importantly identification and measurement of component elements in the change of crop production, identification and quantification of sources of variance in crop production over space and time, decomposition of output with the introduction of new technology in the farming system. This study deals with Hazell peter (1982) model on changes in important cereal production. This model is a time tested model which decomposes variance of production into direct effects and indirect effects, it has unique feature in that the variance of production is decomposed into ten components. The analysis has been done at State level data. Production variability has been measured in two time periods. The data used here were obtained by the department of Economics and Statistics, Bangalore. The researcher has developed a programme in MS-Excel package for Peter Hazell's Decomposition Analysis, which is used friendly. This decomposition models not only help in agriculture sector, but also in non-agricultural sectors to find out the key factors of instability in production.


Swapna K.S.,Dairy Science College | Rao K.J.,National Dairy Research Institute
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

In view of their growing importance in human nutrition, incorporation of oats and cheese during the manufacture of short-dough type biscuits was studied. Rolled oats were incorporated at 25, 35 and 45 % of refined wheat flour in short-dough type biscuit formulation. Cheddar and processed cheese were used for flavouring purpose at three levels each, viz. 30, 40 and 50 % on flour basis. The dough exhibited less firmness on oats incorporation as indicated by lower firmness value (21.73 N) as against 25.05 N for control dough measured by Texture Analyser. Addition of cheese to the 25 % oat incorporated dough further reduced its firmness and altered its viscoelastic characteristics. Baking conditions for the oats and cheese incorporated biscuits were optimized as 165 °C for 25–27 min. Sensory evaluation results revealed that the biscuit made from 25 % oat incorporated dough scored highest in most of the sensory attributes including overall acceptability. Cheddar cheese and processed cheese levels were optimized at 30 and 40 % in oats-incorporated dough based on the sensory analysis of biscuits prepared from the dough samples. The moisture and β- glucan contents were 3.93 % and 0.62 %; 4.32 % and 0.60 % for cheddar cheese and processed cheese added biscuits, respectively. The spread ratios were higher in cheese incorporated biscuits than in oat incorporated biscuits. It was concluded that good quality cheese flavoured biscuits can be prepared by incorporating rolled oats in biscuit formulation along with cheddar or processed cheese. © 2015 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India)


Sharma A.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Sawhney I.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Lal M.,Dairy Science College
Drying Technology | Year: 2014

Soft computing-based intelligent models have been proposed to predict moisture sorption isotherms in milk and pearl millet-based weaning food, "fortified Nutrimix," at four temperatures, 15, 25, 35, and 45°C over the water activity range 0.11-0.97. Connectionist and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were investigated. A back-propagation algorithm with Bayesian regularization/Levenberg-Marquardt optimization mechanisms was employed to develop connectionist models. The ANFIS model was based on the Sugeno-type fuzzy inference system. In addition, several empirical models were explored for fitting the sorption data. The soft computing models, in particular, ANFIS, outperformed the conventional sorption models for predicting isotherms in Nutrimix. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Kumar S.K.,Dairy Science College | Jayaprakasha H.M.,Dairy Science College | Paik H.-D.,Konkuk University | Kim S.-K.,Konkuk University | And 3 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2010

This investigation was aimed at developing a ready-to-reconstitute beverage by utilizing probiotics and whey protein hydrolysates carrying bioactive peptides. Cheddar cheese whey was ultrafiltered. The 18% protein retentate was subjected to protein hydrolysis using Neutrase. The hydrolyzed retentate was further condensed to 35% total solids and spray-dried at 75°C outlet air temperature. Different levels of sugar, citric acid and stabilizer were blended for spray-dried hydrolysates. Spray-dried hydrolysate was further inoculated with different levels of probiotics grown in a whey medium and dried in fluidized-bed drier at 40°C to obtain a ready-to-reconstitute beverage. Hydrolysis was greatest at an enzyme:substrate ratio of 1:25 for 3 h. Spray-dried hydrolysate reconstituted to 1% protein and blended with 15% sugar, 0.2% citric acid and 0.15% xantham gum resulted in a superior product with no sedimentation. Accordingly, sugar, citric acid and xanthum gum were dry-blended with spray-dried hydrolysates. Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus that was grown separately in a whey medium, blended to produce 2% spray-dried hydrolysate and dried as described above resulted in a ready-to-reconstitute beverage mix. The fluidized dried product typically exhibited a probiotic count of 10 8 colony forming units (CFU)/g. However, blending of probiotic to the retentate and direct spray-drying precipitously reduced the probiotic count to 10 4 CFU/g of powder.


Mahalingaiah L.,Dairy Science College | Venkateshaiah B.V.,Dairy Science College | Kulkarni S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Rao K.J.,National Dairy Research Institute
Journal of Food Process Engineering | Year: 2011

Kunda is an Indian traditional heat desiccated dairy product popular in Karnataka province of India. Manufacture of Kunda is a time consuming and energy intensive process involving continuous desiccation of milk along with sugar and the process involves consumption of large quantities of steam for evaporation of water. Since energy conservation in dairies is a priority area, a technology was developed to manufacture Kunda with less energy requirement utilizing caramelized sugar. Caramelized sugar was used during the process at various levels and it was observed that browning developed faster with increasing level of caramelized sugar. Use of 40% level of caramelized sugar reduced the total process time and also produced good quality Kunda. The total net energy consumption per kg Kunda was 8262.61 kJ and this energy consumption was brought down by 26.91% utilizing caramelized sugar at 40% level of sugar. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | National Dairy Research Institute and Dairy Science College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2016

In view of their growing importance in human nutrition, incorporation of oats and cheese during the manufacture of short-dough type biscuits was studied. Rolled oats were incorporated at 25, 35 and 45% of refined wheat flour in short-dough type biscuit formulation. Cheddar and processed cheese were used for flavouring purpose at three levels each, viz. 30, 40 and 50% on flour basis. The dough exhibited less firmness on oats incorporation as indicated by lower firmness value (21.73N) as against 25.05N for control dough measured by Texture Analyser. Addition of cheese to the 25% oat incorporated dough further reduced its firmness and altered its viscoelastic characteristics. Baking conditions for the oats and cheese incorporated biscuits were optimized as 165C for 25-27min. Sensory evaluation results revealed that the biscuit made from 25% oat incorporated dough scored highest in most of the sensory attributes including overall acceptability. Cheddar cheese and processed cheese levels were optimized at 30 and 40% in oats-incorporated dough based on the sensory analysis of biscuits prepared from the dough samples. The moisture and - glucan contents were 3.93% and 0.62%; 4.32% and 0.60% for cheddar cheese and processed cheese added biscuits, respectively. The spread ratios were higher in cheese incorporated biscuits than in oat incorporated biscuits. It was concluded that good quality cheese flavoured biscuits can be prepared by incorporating rolled oats in biscuit formulation along with cheddar or processed cheese.

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