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Cicvarek J.,Dairy Research Institute Ltd. | Curda L.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Elich O.,JSC Dairy Research Institute | Dvorakova E.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Dvorak M.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague
Czech Journal of Food Sciences | Year: 2010

We investigated the effect of caseinomacropeptide concentrate (CMP) on the growth and metabolic activity of Bifidobacterium bifidum CCDM 94 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 in skim milk with the addition of glucose and of various combinations of yeast extract, l-cysteine-HCl, ascorbic acid, and CMP. The microorganisms grew well on the medium containing a combination of all the nutrients mentioned, and on that where only l-cysteine-HCl was missing. In the media enhanced with CMP a shorter lag-phase occurred than in those without CMP. The shortest lag-phase and the longest log-phase with a high growth rate were observed in media No. 2 (complete medium with CMP) and No. 8 (complete medium without l-cysteine-HCl).


Lisova I.,Dairy Research Institute Ltd. | Horackova S.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Kovacova R.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Rada V.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Plockova M.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague
Czech Journal of Food Sciences | Year: 2013

The commercial probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 was encapsulated using emulsion encapsulation into milk protein matrix without and with the addition of 0.5% w/w lecithin into the oil. Different agitation speeds were used during the encapsulation process. The examination of microcapsules was carried out by optical microscope and fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The particle size distribution as volume based median d 0.5 was evaluated by the laser diffraction method. In the case of no lecithin addition, the agitation speed did not influence significantly the size of the microcapsules. The addition of 0.5% (w/w) of lecithin into the oil caused a decrease of d0.5 value from 196 ± 37 μm to 79 ± 3 μm at an agitation speed of 500 rpm, and from 193 ± 24 μm to 39 ± 3 μm at 1200 rpm. It can improve the sensory properties of the products with the added microcapsules.


Srutkova D.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Schwarzer M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Hudcovic T.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Zakostelska Z.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Reduced microbial diversity has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and probiotic bacteria have been proposed for its prevention and/or treatment. Nevertheless, comparative studies of strains of the same subspecies for specific health benefits are scarce. Here we compared two Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains for their capacity to prevent experimental colitis. Methods Immunomodulatory properties of nine probiotic bifidobacteria were assessed by stimulation of murine splenocytes. The immune responses to B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 (Bl 7952) and CCDM 372 (Bl 372) were further characterized by stimulation of bone marrowderived dendritic cell, HEK293/TLR2 or HEK293/NOD2 cells. A mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis was used to compare their beneficial effects in vivo. Results The nine bifidobacteria exhibited strain-specific abilities to induce cytokine production. Bl 372 induced higher levels of both pro- And anti-inflammatory cytokines in spleen and dendritic cell cultures compared to Bl 7952. Both strains engaged TLR2 and contain ligands for NOD2. In a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, reduced clinical symptoms and preserved expression of tight junction proteins. Importantly, Bl 7952 improved intestinal barrier function as demonstrated by reduced FITC-dextran levels in serum. Conclusions We have shown that Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, protected mice from the development of experimental colitis. Our data suggest that although some immunomodulatory properties might be widespread among the genus Bifidobacterium, others may be rare and characteristic only for a specific strain. Therefore, careful selection might be crucial in providing beneficial outcome in clinical trials with probiotics in IBD. © 2015 Srutkova et al.


PubMed | Brno University of Technology, Dairy Research Institute Ltd., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and Medical University of Vienna
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Reduced microbial diversity has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and probiotic bacteria have been proposed for its prevention and/or treatment. Nevertheless, comparative studies of strains of the same subspecies for specific health benefits are scarce. Here we compared two Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains for their capacity to prevent experimental colitis.Immunomodulatory properties of nine probiotic bifidobacteria were assessed by stimulation of murine splenocytes. The immune responses to B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 (Bl 7952) and CCDM 372 (Bl 372) were further characterized by stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell, HEK293/TLR2 or HEK293/NOD2 cells. A mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis was used to compare their beneficial effects in vivo.The nine bifidobacteria exhibited strain-specific abilities to induce cytokine production. Bl 372 induced higher levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in spleen and dendritic cell cultures compared to Bl 7952. Both strains engaged TLR2 and contain ligands for NOD2. In a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, reduced clinical symptoms and preserved expression of tight junction proteins. Importantly, Bl 7952 improved intestinal barrier function as demonstrated by reduced FITC-dextran levels in serum.We have shown that Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, protected mice from the development of experimental colitis. Our data suggest that although some immunomodulatory properties might be widespread among the genus Bifidobacterium, others may be rare and characteristic only for a specific strain. Therefore, careful selection might be crucial in providing beneficial outcome in clinical trials with probiotics in IBD.


Michlova T.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Dragounova H.,Dairy Research Institute Ltd. | Hornickova S.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Hejtmankova A.,Czech University of Life Sciences
Czech Journal of Food Sciences | Year: 2015

The content of lipophilic vitamins A and E was determined in samples of sheep and goat milk of different breeds coming from 9 farms in central, eastern, and southern Bohemia. Samples were collected throughout the period of lactation (from April to September). Vitamins A and E were determined by HPLC using DAD and FLD detectors. Vitamin A was determined in all samples but only α-tocopherol (out of various forms of vitamin E) was detected in all samples. The total average content of vitamins A and E in raw milk of all sheep breeds during lactation was 0.93 ± 0.07 and 2.93 ± 0.87 mg/kg, levels of these vitamins in goat milk were 0.79 ± 0.08 and 1.29 ± 0.35 mg/kg, respectively. The results showed a significantly medium and strong correlation between the content of vitamin A and E and the content of fat (R2 = 0.57 and 0.75, respectively). The year did not have any statistically significant influence on the content of monitored vitamins. The content of both vitamins is dependent on the phase of lactation. The levels of vitamins A and E were significantly lower in the early phase and significantly higher in the late phase of lactation. The amount of monitored vitamins slightly decreased during pasteurisation. A strong decrease in the content of both vitamins was observed during the first two weeks after milk storage in a freezing box at the temperature of -20°C (about 11-55%).


Michlova T.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Dragounova H.,Dairy Research Institute Ltd | Hejtmankova A.,Czech University of Life Sciences
Agronomy Research | Year: 2015

In this article, the influence of different ways of storage on the content of vitamin A and E in powdered cow´s milk was studied. The cow´s whole milk powder was taken directly from the manufacturer and stored for one year in 4 different ways – in the light at room temperature, in the dark at room temperature, in a refrigerator at 8°C and in a freezer at -20°C. The content of vitamins was measured 4 times during the first month and then once a month. The samples were stored for one year. Vitamins A and E were determined by HPLC using DAD and FLD detectors. Vitamin A was identified in all samples but only α-tocopherol (out of various forms of vitamin E) was detected in all samples. In all cases steeper decline of both vitamins in first 14 days of storage was identified. The highest losses of vitamin A and E in powdered milk occurred during storage in the light at room temperature. The value decreased by 91 resp. 95% of the original value. © 2015, Eesti Pollumajandusulikool. All rights reserved.


Hejtmankova A.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Pivec V.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Trnkova E.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Dragounova H.,Dairy Research Institute Ltd.
Czech Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to evaluate changes in composition of whey proteins of Czech White Short-haired goat and East Friesian ewe milk and their comparison throughout lactation. Some differences in composition between ewe and goat milk were found. The results showed that the mean total protein (%), whey protein (g/100 g), and β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg, g/100 g) contents of goat milk were 2.75, 0.433, and 0.119 respectively and of ewe milk 6.36, 1.11, and 0.732 respectively. The contents of total protein as well as acid whey proteins in goat milk were nearly constant throughout the lactation period and fluctuated around the mean value while the contents of total protein as well as acid whey proteins in ovine milk were dependent on the period of lactation. The total protein content in ovine milk continuously increased during the lactation period. A higher content of ovine acid whey proteins was noticed at the beginning and in the final period of lactation. The average ratio of whey to total protein was 15.8 ± 2.61% in goat milk and 17.4 ± 2.68% in ewe milk and ranged from 13.0 to 20.4% in goat and from 14.0 to 20.8% in ewe milk. The total contents of two major whey proteins. ?-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin (α-La + β-Lg = AG), averaged 87% of total whey protein, 92% in ovine milk. The main component of acid whey proteins in goat milk was ?-La while in ovine milk the main component of acid whey proteins was β-Lg, however, at the end of the lactation period the content of β-Lg for both kinds of milk increased steeply, and the β-Lg/α-La ratio reached a maximum value of 1.94 in goat milk and of 9.74 in ewe milk. In addition, goat milk contains a similar amino acid profile to ewe milk but the amino acid pattern in whey proteins differs from that in milk. Total essential amino acids were approximately 40% of the total amino acids in goat and ewe milk as well as in goat and ewe whey.


Hejtmankova A.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Pivec V.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Trnkova E.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Dragounova H.,Dairy Research Institute Ltd.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to evaluate changes in composition of whey proteins of Czech White Short-haired caprine milk throughout lactation.The results showed that the mean total protein (%), whey protein (g/100. g), and β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg, g/100. g) contents of milk were 2.75, 0.433, and 0.119, respectively. The content of total protein as well as acid whey proteins throughout the lactation period were nearly constant and fluctuated around the mean value. The average ratio of whey to total protein was 15.8 ± 2.61% and ranged from 13.0 to 20.8%. The total content of two major whey proteins (α-La + β-Lg = AG) averaged 87% of total whey protein.The main component of acid whey proteins was α-lactalbumin (α-La), but at the end of the lactation period the content of β-Lg increased steeply, and the β-Lg/α-La ratio reached a maximum value of 1.94. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Kadlec R.,Dairy Research Institute Ltd. | Jakubec M.,Dairy Research Institute Ltd.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

Prebiotics are generally considered to promote the function or viability of probiotics via their fermentation, but their effect on the adherence of probiotics is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of 4 commercially available prebiotics [Orafti GR, Orafti P95, and Orafti Synergy (Beneo GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), and Vivinal (Friesland Foods Domo, Amersfoort, the Netherlands)] and 3 simple saccharides (glucose, galactose, and lactose) on the adherence of 5 probiotic type strains, 2 lactococci starter cultures, and 5 potential dairy probiotic strains from the Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms (Tábor, Czech Republic). Adherence was tested in microtiter plates on the following types of substrate: polystyrene alone and polystyrene coated with either porcine mucus or cocultures of the human colon cell lines Caco2 and HT29-MXT (1:9 ratio of HT29-MXT:Caco2). Adherence was evaluated as a change in fluorescence in the well of a microtiter plate. The most commonly observed effect (with a few exceptions) of prebiotics was decreased adherence of the tested strains observed on all types of substrate. The tested saccharides, which are part of the residual compounds of the used prebiotics, had a very similar effect-eliciting a decrease in adherence ability in the majority of the probiotic strains. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.


PubMed | Dairy Research Institute Ltd.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Letters in applied microbiology | Year: 2014

An understanding of adherence ability is crucial in many areas, for example, in research on biofilms, evaluation of probiotics or in biotechnology. In all these analyses, the reproducible washing is very important in the prevention of false results. During washing, the force, direction of the flow, position of the pipette tip, number of washing cycles, type of washing solution and the way of removing the washing solution can be sources of inappropriate stress to attached cells. To overcome these problems, we here propose the use of high mass density solutions as flotation agents. As the density of bacteria is lower than that of the flotation solutions, nonattached or weakly attached bacteria are moved to the surface due to hydrostatic force. Caesium chloride, ammonium nitrate and sodium diatrizoate solutions, which are commonly used as FAs, were compared with a standard method of rinsing. Several concentrations of agents were used to investigate the optimal concentration and influence of hydrostatic pressure on adhered micro-organisms. We show that flotation is a rapid method for distinguishing between adhered and weakly attached or loosed cells with reproducible results. Due to its range of possible mass density concentration, the best FA was shown to be caesium chloride.This is the first study that suggests using flotation agents to separate planktonic from adhered bacteria. When a high-density solution is used, buoyancy of bacteria ensures their segregation in the solution. Flotation agents could be used instead of washing procedure, which is inaccurate and hardly reproducible. High-density flotation agents could be used for more precise evaluation of bacterial adherence in many assays, such as research of biofilms or evaluation of probiotics.

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