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Kiel, Germany

Sultana M.N.,Bangladesh University | Uddin M.M.,Bangladesh University | Ridoutt B.,CSIRO | Hemme T.,Dairy Research Center | Peters K.,Humboldt University of Berlin
Global Food Security | Year: 2015

This study sets out to measure CWU (litre/kg ECM, energy-corrected milk) of typical milk production systems in 60 dairy regions from 49 countries representing 85% of the world's milk production. The extended version of TIPI-CAL 5.2 including water model was used for data analysis.The results have shown the CWU/kg ECM ranged between 739. L on the Danish farm to 5622 l on the Ugandan farm with a global average of 1833. L. When looking at averages per region, the CWU was lowest in Europe (913. L) and highest in Africa (3384. L) with large intra- and inter-regional differences. Compared with grazing and intensive production system, low yielding cows on small-scale farms have the highest CWU/kg ECM. The key driver for variation in CWU/kg ECM is feed, accounting for 94-99% of the total CWU. Increasing milk productivity might be one of the promising ways to reduce CWU/kg ECM. However, this might also lead to the negative impact into water supply systems if this increase is dependent on land irrigation in water scarce areas. The findings of this study showed the need to address the location of the farm, the feed quality, feeding system and milk production intensity simultaneously when aiming at efficient water resource management which would help to contribute food production and livelihood security of dairy farmers worldwide. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Halachmi I.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Klopcic M.,University of Ljubljana | Polak P.,Institute for Animal Production | Roberts D.J.,Dairy Research Center | Bewley J.M.,University of Kentucky
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2013

Automatic and objective dairy cow body condition scoring has the potential to be used as a feed, reproduction, health and longevity management tool. The feasibility of including a body shape measurement in automatic monitoring of body condition was evaluated. The hypothesis tested was that the body shape of a fatter cow is more round than that of a thin cow and, therefore, may better fit a parabolic shape. The more prominent hooks and the tailhead depressions of a thin cow tended to diverge from the parabolic shape. An image-processing model appraised body shape. The novelties in this study compared to the previous ones (Halachmi et al., 2008; Bewley et al., 2008) were: (1) completing the full-automation of the system and (2) more accurate reference, not ultrasound. The model was implemented and its outputs were validated against manual body condition scoring (BCS) of 186 Holstein-Friesian cows. Pearson correlation between the thermally sensed BCS and the manual BCS was 0.94. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hagemann M.,Dairy Research Center | Ndambi A.,Dairy Research Center | Hemme T.,Dairy Research Center | Latacz-Lohmann U.,University of Kiel
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2012

Background, aim and scope: Studies on the contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are rare (FAO 2010) and often based on crude data which do not appropriately reflect the heterogeneity of farming systems. This article estimates GHG emissions from milk production in different dairy regions of the world based on a harmonised farm data and assesses the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions. Materials, methods and results: The methodology comprises three elements: (1) the International Farm Comparison Network (IFCN) concept of typical farms and the related globally standardised dairy model farms representing 45 dairy regions in 38 countries; (2) a partial life cycle assessment model for estimating GHG emissions of the typical dairy farms; and (3) standard regression analysis to estimate GHG emissions from milk production in countries for which no typical farms are available in the IFCN database. Across the 117 typical farms in the 38 countries analysed, the average emission rate is 1. 50 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2-eq.)/kg milk. The contribution of milk production to the global anthropogenic emissions is estimated at 1. 3 Gt CO2-eq./year, accounting for 2. 65% of total global anthropogenic emissions (49 Gt; IPCC, Synthesis Report for Policy Maker, Valencia, Spain, 2007). Discussion and conclusion: We emphasise that our estimates of the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions are subject to uncertainty. Part of the uncertainty stems from the choice of the appropriate methods for estimating emissions at the level of the individual animal. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Alqaisi O.,University of Kiel | Alqaisi O.,Dairy Research Center | Hemme T.,Dairy Research Center | Latacz-Lohmann U.,University of Kiel | Susenbeth A.,University of Kiel
Sustainability Science | Year: 2014

Dairy feeding systems in many semi-arid countries are based on imported concentrates and forages. This has economic and ecological implications given the increase in global feed prices and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land use change. This paper aims to explore alternative dairy feeding systems under semi-arid conditions, using Jordan as an example. The feedings systems under investigation vary in their share of food industry by-products (replacing concentrates in the diet) and are compared against the current concentrate-based feeding systems. The systems are evaluated against three criteria: their nutritional value, their impact on the cost of milk production, and their GHG mitigation potential. Feed samples from eleven food industry by-products and ten conventional feeds were collected from food factories and from three typical dairy farms, representing the typical large-, medium- and small-scale farm types, respectively. Feed samples were analysed for their chemical composition and metabolisable energy contents. In addition, economic and production farm data were collected and entered into a model for GHGs calculation and economic evaluation. The results suggest that inclusion of locally available food industry by-products in the rations of milk cows in semi-arid production systems can be instrumental in reducing production costs and mitigating GHG emissions. Cost of milk production in the model farms can be lowered by up to 14 %; mitigation of CO2 eq. emission ranged between 70 and 290 g CO2 eq./kg milk. The degree to which these benefits can be reaped is positively related to the level of inclusion of by-product feeds in lactating cows' diets. © 2014 Springer Japan. Source

Alqaisi O.,University of Kiel | Alqaisi O.,Dairy Research Center | Hemme T.,Dairy Research Center | Hagemann M.,Dairy Research Center | Susenbeth A.,University of Kiel
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n=58), fecal samples (n=108), and milk samples (n=78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility according to Hohenheim-Feed-Test. Furthermore, fecal nitrogen concentration was determined to estimate in vivo organic matter digestibility. ME and nutrient intakes were calculated based on the farmer's estimate of dry matter intake and the analysed composition of the feed ingredients. ME and nutrient intakes were compared to recommended standard values for adequate supply of ME, utilizable crude protein, rumen undegradable crude protein (RUCP), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculation model complemented with a partial life cycle assessment model was used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions of milk production at farm gate. The model predicts CH4, N2O and CO2 gases emitted either directly or indirectly. Average daily energy corrected milk yield (ECM) was 19kg and ranged between 11 and 27kg. The mean of ME intake of all farms was 184MJ/d with a range between 115 and 225MJ/d. Intake of RUCP was lower than the standard requirements in six farms ranging between 19 and 137g/d, was higher (32 and 93g/d) in two farms, and matched the requirements in one farm. P intake was higher than the requirements in all farms (mean oversupply=19g/d) and ranged between 3 and 30g/d. Ca intake was significantly below the requirements in small scale farms. Milk nitrogen efficiency N-eff (milk N/intake N) varied between 19% and 28% and was mainly driven by the level of milk yield. Total CO2 equivalent (CO2 equ) emission ranged between 0.90 and 1.88kg CO2/kg ECM milk, where the enteric and manure CH4 contributed to 52% of the total CO2 equ emissions, followed by the indirect emissions of N2O and the direct emissions of CO2 gases which comprises 17% and 15%, respectively, from total CO2 equ emissions. Emissions per kg of milk were significantly driven by the level of milk production (r2=0.93) and of eDMI (r2=0.88), while the total emissions were not influenced by diet composition. A difference of 16kg ECM/d in milk yield, 9% in N-eff and of 0.9kg CO2 equ/kg in ECM milk observed between low and high yielding animals. To improve the nutritional status of the animals, protein requirements have to be met. Furthermore, low price by-products with a low carbon credit should be included in the diets to replace the high proportion of imported concentrate feeds and consequently improve the economic situation of dairy farms and mitigate CO2 equ emissions. © 2014. Source

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