Dairy Goat Cooperative NZ Ltd.

Hamilton, New Zealand

Dairy Goat Cooperative NZ Ltd.

Hamilton, New Zealand
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McDougall S.,Animal Health Center | Malcolm D.,Dairy Consultants Ltd | Prosser C.G.,Dairy Goat Cooperative NZ Ltd
New Zealand Veterinary Journal | Year: 2014

AIM: To determine the prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) of lactating dairy goats between 0 and 4 days postpartum, the prevalence and incidence rate of new IMI at Weeks 2, 14 and 27 of lactation, and the relationship between herd-level prevalence of IMI and bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC).METHODS: Milk samples were collected from 8% of a herd (total 624 does) from 18 dairy goat herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand, for bacteriology and somatic cell count (SCC) determination, from both glands within 4 days of kidding (Week 0) and again at Weeks 2, 14 and 27. Prevalence of IMI was determined at each time point and incidence rate calculated for Weeks 0-2, 2-14, and 14-27. Greenwood and Reed-Frost models were compared for estimation of the transmission parameter for all pathogens, and for Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) and Corynebacterium spp. separately.RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated from 1,122/4,814 (23.3%) glands, with CNS (13.4%) and Corynebacterium spp. (7.3%) being the most common isolates. Prevalence of any IMI increased with stage of lactation, varied among herds, and increased with age (all p<0.05). Incidence rate was 80, 24 and 7 new IMI/10,000 gland days for Weeks 0-2, 2-14 and 14-27, respectively. Incidence rate for any IMI increased with age and with the presence of an IMI in the contralateral gland, and varied among herds (p<0.001). The transmission of each pathogen was better modelled assuming contagiousness (Reed-Frost models), than not (Greenwood models).At gland level, IMI increased SCC at all stages of lactation (p<0.001). The gland prevalence of IMI within herds was positively associated with ln BTSCC at Week 2 (p=0.02), but not Weeks 14 or 27 (p>0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of IMI increased with stage of lactation, but the highest incidence rate of new IMI occurred in early lactation. Models accounting for the contagious nature of infection fitted better than those not accounting for contagiousness. BTSCC was only associated with prevalence of IMI in early lactation.CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Reduction of BTSCC in dairy goats may be best achieved by minimising the prevalence and incidence of new IMI in early lactation. Further studies are required to define management factors associated with the between herd, and stage of lactation, effects on prevalence and incidence rate in order to reduce BTSCC throughout lactation. © 2014 New Zealand Veterinary Association.

Lawley B.,University of Otago | Munro K.,University of Otago | Hughes A.,University of Otago | Hodgkinson A.J.,Agresearch Ltd. | And 12 more authors.
PeerJ | Year: 2017

Background. Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are abundant in the feces of babies during the exclusively-milk-diet period of life. Bifidobacterium longum is reported to be a common member of the infant fecal microbiota. However, B. longum is composed of three subspecies, two of which are represented in the bowel microbiota (B. longum subsp. longum; B. longum subsp. infantis). B. longum subspecies are not differentiated in many studies, so that their prevalence and relative abundances are not accurately known. This may largely be due to difficulty in assigning subspecies identity using DNA sequences of 16S rRNA or tuf genes that are commonly used in bacterial taxonomy. Methods. We developed a qPCR method targeting the sialidase gene (subsp. infantis) and sugar kinase gene (subsp. longum) to differentiate the subspecies using specific primers and probes. Specificity of the primers/probes was tested by in silico, pangenomic search, and using DNA from standard cultures of bifidobacterial species. The utility of the method was further examined using DNA from feces that had been collected from infants inhabiting various geographical regions. Results. A pangenomic search of the NCBI genomic database showed that the PCR primers/probes targeted only the respective genes of the two subspecies. The primers/probes showed total specificity when tested against DNA extracted from the gold standard strains (type cultures) of bifidobacterial species detected in infant feces. Use of the qPCR method with DNA extracted from the feces of infants of different ages, delivery method and nutrition, showed that subsp. infantis was detectable (0-32.4% prevalence) in the feces of Australian (nD90), South-East Asian (nD24), and Chinese babies (nD91), but in all cases at low abundance (<0.01-4.6%) compared to subsp. longum (0.1-33.7% abundance; 21.4-100% prevalence). Discussion. Our qPCR method differentiates B. longum subspecies longum and infantis using characteristic functional genes. It can be used as an identification aid for isolates of bifidobacteria, as well as in determining prevalence and abundance of the subspecies in feces. The method should thus be useful in ecological studies of the infant gut microbiota during early life where an understanding of the ecology of bifidobacterial species may be important in developing interventions to promote infant health. © 2017 Lawley et al.

Tannock G.W.,University of Otago | Tannock G.W.,Riddet Institute | Lawley B.,University of Otago | Munro K.,University of Otago | And 8 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milkfed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.

McDougall S.,Animal Health Center | Supre K.,Ghent University | De Vliegher S.,Ghent University | Haesebrouck F.,Ghent University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

The objectives of the study were to define the sensitivity and specificity of the California Mastitis Test (CMT) in determining the presence of intramammary infection in postpartum dairy goats and to determine whether antibiotic therapy increased bacteriological cure rate and lowered somatic cell count (SCC) compared with untreated controls. A CMT was performed and milk samples were collected for bacteriology from 211 glands of 106 does between 0 and 10 d after kidding. From a population of 3,239 glands from goats in 4 commercial herds, goats with one or both glands with a CMT score of >1 and from which bacteria were isolated were either assigned to be treated with 3 intramammary infusions at 12-h intervals of 75. mg of sodium ampicillin and 250. mg of sodium cloxacillin (n=57 glands) or left as untreated controls (n=49 glands). Milk samples were collected again 14 ± 3 and 21 ± 3 d later for bacteriology and SCC determination. Composite milk yield, goat SCC, length of lactation, and survival data were collected. A partial budget was constructed to assess the cost effectiveness of treatment. At a cut point of greater than trace, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the CMT were 0.74, 0.74, 0.42, and 0.92, respectively. Treatment increased the bacteriological cure rate compared with no treatment [30/57 (53%) vs. 6/49 (12%)], but there was a pathogen by treatment interaction whereby treatment increased cure proportion in glands infected with minor, but not major, pathogens. Treatment reduced the foremilk gland-level SCC [1,595 (95% CI=1,106-2,300) vs. 3,028 (95% CI=2,091-4,385) geometric mean (× 1,000) cells/mL] but not the SCC at goat level [1,596 (95% CI=1,219-2,090) vs. 1,488 (95% CI=1,132-1,955) geometric mean (× 1,000) cells/mL] compared with no treatment. Milk yield, risk of removal from the herd, and length of lactation were not altered by treatment. Treatment resulted in a loss of NZ$20.39/doe. It was concluded that use of the CMT as a screening test resulted in a higher likelihood of finding a gland that would be infected than selecting a gland at random. Treatment increased bacteriological cure rate and reduced SCC at gland level compared with no treatment. However, at goat level, milk yield, SCC, and survival were not altered, resulting in no economic benefit of treatment. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.

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