Tannock G.W.,University of Otago |
Tannock G.W.,Riddet Institute |
Lawley B.,University of Otago |
Munro K.,University of Otago |
And 8 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013
The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milkfed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.
McDougall S.,Animal Health Center |
Supre K.,Ghent University |
De Vliegher S.,Ghent University |
Haesebrouck F.,Ghent University |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010
The objectives of the study were to define the sensitivity and specificity of the California Mastitis Test (CMT) in determining the presence of intramammary infection in postpartum dairy goats and to determine whether antibiotic therapy increased bacteriological cure rate and lowered somatic cell count (SCC) compared with untreated controls. A CMT was performed and milk samples were collected for bacteriology from 211 glands of 106 does between 0 and 10 d after kidding. From a population of 3,239 glands from goats in 4 commercial herds, goats with one or both glands with a CMT score of >1 and from which bacteria were isolated were either assigned to be treated with 3 intramammary infusions at 12-h intervals of 75. mg of sodium ampicillin and 250. mg of sodium cloxacillin (n=57 glands) or left as untreated controls (n=49 glands). Milk samples were collected again 14 ± 3 and 21 ± 3 d later for bacteriology and SCC determination. Composite milk yield, goat SCC, length of lactation, and survival data were collected. A partial budget was constructed to assess the cost effectiveness of treatment. At a cut point of greater than trace, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the CMT were 0.74, 0.74, 0.42, and 0.92, respectively. Treatment increased the bacteriological cure rate compared with no treatment [30/57 (53%) vs. 6/49 (12%)], but there was a pathogen by treatment interaction whereby treatment increased cure proportion in glands infected with minor, but not major, pathogens. Treatment reduced the foremilk gland-level SCC [1,595 (95% CI=1,106-2,300) vs. 3,028 (95% CI=2,091-4,385) geometric mean (× 1,000) cells/mL] but not the SCC at goat level [1,596 (95% CI=1,219-2,090) vs. 1,488 (95% CI=1,132-1,955) geometric mean (× 1,000) cells/mL] compared with no treatment. Milk yield, risk of removal from the herd, and length of lactation were not altered by treatment. Treatment resulted in a loss of NZ$20.39/doe. It was concluded that use of the CMT as a screening test resulted in a higher likelihood of finding a gland that would be infected than selecting a gland at random. Treatment increased bacteriological cure rate and reduced SCC at gland level compared with no treatment. However, at goat level, milk yield, SCC, and survival were not altered, resulting in no economic benefit of treatment. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.