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Hamilton, New Zealand

Hodgkinson A.J.,Agresearch Ltd. | McDonald N.A.,Agresearch Ltd. | Kivits L.J.,Agresearch Ltd. | Hurford D.R.,Agresearch Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Up to 3% of young children develop milk allergy and this may influence the development of immune-mediated diseases in later life. One protein that has been associated with allergic reactions to ruminant milk is α S1-casein (CN). Studies suggest that goat milk with low levels of α S1-CN may reduce allergenicity of milk, but the dose response to α S1-CN has not been confirmed. In this study, we examined the immune response to varying levels of goat α S1-CN in a mouse model of gastrointestinal allergy. BALB/c mice (aged 5 wk) were given intraperitoneal injections with α S1-CN and aluminum as adjuvant at 1 and 3 wk to sensitize mice to the antigen. In wk 5, groups of fasting mice (n=8/group) were challenged 4 times on alternate days by intragastric gavage with saline or 2, 10, or 20mg of α S1-CN. Serum levels of specific IgE, IgG 1, and IgG 2a antibodies and mouse mast cell protease-I were determined. Interleukin-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ responses to 48-h activation with antigen were measured in cultured splenocytes. We determined that mice sensitized with α S1-CN had higher titers of specific IgG 1 and IgE antibodies compared with controls; however, groups challenged with differing doses of α S1-CN did not differ. The group challenged with the highest dose of α S1-CN had a 10-fold increase in mouse mast cell protease-I compared with the group challenged with saline. Both IL-4 and IL-10 were produced in a dose-dependent manner by cultured splenocytes incubated with α S1-CN. Overall, α S1-CN stimulated the production of cytokines associated with allergic disease in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, milk with lower levels of α S1-CN should contribute to a lesser antigenic burden. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Silanikove N.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Leitner G.,Kimron Veterinary Institute | Merin U.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Prosser C.G.,Dairy Goat Co operative NZ Ltd.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2010

Goat milk production is a dynamic and growing industry that is fundamental to the wellbeing of hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is an important part of the economy in many countries. The aim of the present review is to provide an integrated and critical analysis of the major aspects in this field to highlight unexploited nutritional potential of goat milk and the need for improvements, particularly in food safety. First, it should be kept in mind that goat milk like cow milk delivers many nutrients with relatively low energy content, and is relevant to the health of consumers throughout the life cycle. In addition, the review presents data suggesting that goat milk possesses many advantages over cow milk, for use as a nutritional source for infants and children and as a medicinal food. Furthermore, goats, by consuming large amounts of natural browsing plants all year around, are a potentially overlooked "treasure trove", with respect to health promoting components. The survey suggests that total bacterial count that is currently used as the major quality measure to prevent pathogen-related food toxicity is not sufficiently effective. The proposal is to include somatic cell count as a routine criterion to qualify the hygienic status of goat milk in terms of the relevant physiology and biochemistry. The paper presents a novel mechanism controlling milk secretion, and demonstrates the use of this knowledge in making decisions for two major managerial tasks that farmers face, namely milking frequency that dictates to a large extent the milk yield and workload on the farm, and helping to deal with subclinical mastitis that is the single major cause for economical losses in dairy farms worldwide. © 2010.

Dairy Goat Co Operative NZ Ltd | Date: 2010-11-26

Powdered infant formulas; milk based foods and beverages for infants; infant formulas containing goats milk; powdered goats milk fortified with added nutrients, vitamins, minerals and/or ingredients to assist digestion, absorption of vitamins and minerals for infants. Milk and milk products, including beverages with a milk base, UHT milk, powdered milk, and milk products fortified with added nutrients, vitamins and/or minerals; goats milk and milk products derived from goats milk, all the foregoing excluding ice cream, ice milk and frozen yogurt.

Han Y.,Sungkyunkwan University | Chang E.-Y.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim J.,Sungkyunkwan University | Ahn K.,Sungkyunkwan University | And 5 more authors.
Nutrition Research and Practice | Year: 2011

This was a prospective cohort study of 976 infants from birth to 12 months of age. Infants were fed breast milk, goat infant formula, cow infant formula, or a combination of formula and breast milk during the first 4 months of age. Data on type of milk feeding and infant growth (weight and height) were collected at birth and at 4, 8, and 12 months during routine clinical assessment. The number and consistency of bowel motions per day were recorded based on observational data supplied by the mothers. Infants fed breast milk or goat or cow infant formula during the first 4 months displayed similar growth outcomes. More of the infants fed cow infant formula had fewer and more well-formed bowel motions compared with breast-fed infants. The stool characteristics of infants fed goat formula resembled those of infants fed breast milk. ©2011 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition.

Zhou S.J.,Womens and Childrens Health Research Institute | Zhou S.J.,Flinders Medical Center | Zhou S.J.,University of Adelaide | Sullivan T.,University of Adelaide | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

The safety and nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas have been questioned. The primary aim of the present study was to compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed a goat milk infant formula with those of infants fed a typical whey-based cow milk infant formula. The secondary aim was to examine a range of health- and allergy-related outcomes. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with 200 formula-fed term infants randomly assigned to receive either goat or cow milk formula from 2 weeks to at least 4 months of age was conducted. A cohort of 101 breast-fed infants was included for comparison. Weight, length and head circumference were measured at 2 weeks and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Nutritional status was assessed from serum albumin, urea, creatinine, Hb, ferritin, and folate and plasma amino acid concentrations at 4 months. Z-scores for weight, length, head circumference and weight for length were not different between the two formula-fed groups. There were differences in the values of some amino acids and blood biomarkers between the formula-fed groups, but the mean values for biomarkers were within the normal reference range. There were no differences in the occurrence of serious adverse events, general health, and incidence of dermatitis or medically diagnosed food allergy. The incidence of parentally reported blood-stained stools was higher in the goat milk formula-fed group, although this was a secondary outcome and its importance is unclear. Goat milk formula provided growth and nutritional outcomes in infants that did not differ from those provided by a standard whey-based cow milk formula. © The Authors 2013.

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