Wyndmoor, PA, United States
Wyndmoor, PA, United States

Time filter

Source Type

Bonnaillie L.M.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit | Tomasula P.M.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit
Polymers | Year: 2014

Thin casein films for food packaging applications reportedly possess good strength and low oxygen permeability, but low elasticity and high sensitivity to moisture. Modifying the films to target specific behaviors depending on environmental conditions can enable a variety of commercial applications for casein-based films. The mechanical properties of solvent-cast (15% solids) calcium-caseinate/glycerol films (CaCas:Gly ratio of 3:1) were characterized as a function of processing and environmental conditions, including film thickness, solution formulation and ambient humidity (from 22% to 70% relative humidity (RH) at ~20°C). At constant RH, the elongation at break (EAB) had a strong positive dependence on the film thickness. When RH increased, the tensile strength (TS) and modulus (E) decreased approximately linearly, while EAB increased. From 0.05% to 1% (w/w) of citric pectin (CP) was then incorporated into CaCas/Gly films following seven different formulations (mixing sequences), to alter the protein network and to evaluate the effects of CP on the tensile properties of CaCas/Gly/CP films. At constant film thickness and ~60% RH, the addition of 0.1% or 1.0% CP to the films considerably increased or decreased EAB, TS and E in different directions and to different extents, depending on the formulation, while optical micrographs also showed vastly differingnetwork configurations, suggesting complex formulation- and stoichiometry-dependent casein-pectin interactions within the dried films. Depending on the desired film properties and utilization conditions, pectin may be a useful addition to casein film formulations for food packaging applications. © 2014 by the authors.


PubMed | Safety Technologies, Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, Residue Chemistry and Predictive Microbiology Research Unit and 1815 iversity St
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

In a case study, we monitored the physical properties of 2 batches of whey protein concentrate (WPC) under adverse storage conditions to provide information on shelf life in hot, humid areas. Whey protein concentrates with 34.9 g of protein/100g (WPC34) and 76.8 g of protein/100g (WPC80) were stored for up to 18 mo under ambient conditions and at elevated temperature and relative humidity. The samples became yellower with storage; those stored at 35 C were removed from the study by 12 mo because of their unsatisfactory appearance. Decreases in lysine and increases in water activity, volatile compound formation, and powder caking values were observed in many specimens. Levels of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeast, and mold were <3.85 log10 cfu/g in all samples. Relative humidity was not a factor in most samples. When stored in sealed bags, these samples of WPC34 and WPC80 had a shelf life of 9 mo at 35 C but at least 18 mo at lower temperatures, which should extend the market for these products.


Paul M.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit | Phillips J.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Renye J.A.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

An 8-AA (8mer) fragment (PFPEVFGK) of a known antihypertensive peptide derived from bovine αS1-casein (C12 antihypertensive peptide) was synthesized by microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis and purified by reverse phase HPLC. Its ability to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was assessed and compared with that of the parent 12mer peptide (FFVAPFPEVFGK) to determine the effect of truncating the sequence on overall hypotensive activity. The activity of the truncated 8mer peptide was found to be almost 1.5 times less active than that of the 12mer, with ACE-inhibiting IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) values of 108 and 69 μM, for 8mer and 12mer, respectively. Although the 8mer peptide is less active than the original 12mer peptide, its overall activity is comparable to activities reported for other small proteins that elicit physiological responses within humans. These results suggest that microbial degradation of the 12mer peptide would not result in a complete loss of antihypertensive activity if used to supplement fermented foods and that the stable 8mer peptide could have potential as a blood pressure-lowering agent for use in functional foods. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association.


Tomasula P.M.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit | Yee W.C.F.,Eastern Research Group | McAloon A.J.,Eastern Research Group | Nutter D.W.,University of Arkansas | Bonnaillie L.M.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Energy-savings measures have been implemented in fluid milk plants to lower energy costs and the energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although these measures have resulted in reductions in steam, electricity, compressed air, and refrigeration use of up to 30%, a benchmarking framework is necessary to examine the implementation of process-specific measures that would lower energy use, costs, and CO2 emissions even further. In this study, using information provided by the dairy industry and equipment vendors, a customizable model of the fluid milk process was developed for use in process design software to benchmark the electrical and fuel energy consumption and CO2 emissions of current processes. It may also be used to test the feasibility of new processing concepts to lower energy and CO2 emissions with calculation of new capital and operating costs. The accuracy of the model in predicting total energy usage of the entire fluid milk process and the pasteurization step was validated using available literature and industry energy data. Computer simulation of small (40.0 million L/yr), medium (113.6 million L/yr), and large (227.1 million L/yr) processing plants predicted the carbon footprint of milk, defined as grams of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per kilogram of packaged milk, to within 5% of the value of 96g of CO2e/kg of packaged milk obtained in an industry-conducted life cycle assessment and also showed, in agreement with the same study, that plant size had no effect on the carbon footprint of milk but that larger plants were more cost effective in producing milk. Analysis of the pasteurization step showed that increasing the percentage regeneration of the pasteurizer from 90 to 96% would lower its thermal energy use by almost 60% and that implementation of partial homogenization would lower electrical energy use and CO2e emissions of homogenization by 82 and 5.4%, respectively. It was also demonstrated that implementation of steps to lower non-process-related electrical energy in the plant would be more effective in lowering energy use and CO2e emissions than fuel-related energy reductions. The model also predicts process-related water usage, but this portion of the model was not validated due to a lack of data. The simulator model can serve as a benchmarking framework for current plant operations and a tool to test cost-effective process upgrades or evaluate new technologies that improve the energy efficiency and lower the carbon footprint of milk processing plants. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.


Qi P.X.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit | Nunez A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Wickham E.D.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

In this paper, we present the first detailed study of the reaction kinetics and the characterization of the products from the endothermic reactions between β-lactoglobulin and genipin. The effects of the concentration, temperature, and pH were investigated. In the temperature range studied, the reaction was approximately a pseudo-first-order with respect to genipin and 0.22-order and -0.24-order with respect to β-lactoglobulin for pH 6.75 and 10.5 with corresponding activation energy (Ea) estimated to be 66.2 ± 3.8 and 9.40 ± 0.36 kJ/mol, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies, validated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, showed the presence of oligomeric, i.e., di-, tri-, quadri-, and pentameric, forms of cross-linked β-lactoglobulin by genipin at neutral but not alkaline pH; however, an extensive cross-linked network was not observed, consistent with the atomic force microscopy images. It was demonstrated that the reaction temperature and the concentration of genipin but not that of β-lactoglobulin positively affected the extent of the cross-linking reactions. © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2012 by the American Chemical Society.


Van Hekken D.L.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit | Tunick M.H.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit | Farkye N.Y.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo | Tomasula P.M.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Queso Fresco (QF), a popular high-moisture, high-pH Hispanic-style cheese sold in the United States, underwent high-pressure processing (HPP), which has the potential to improve the safety of cheese, to determine the effects of this process on quality traits of the cheese. Starter-free, rennet-set QF (manufactured from pasteurized, homogenized milk, milled before hooping, and not pressed) was cut into 4.5- × 4.5- × 15-cm blocks and double vacuum packaged. Phase 1 of the research examined the effects of hydrostatic HPP on the quality traits of fresh QF that had been warmed to a core temperature of 20 or 40°C; processed at 200, 400, or 600. MPa for 5, 10, or 20. min; and stored at 4°C for 6 to 8. d. Phase 2 examined the long-term effects of HPP on quality traits when QF was treated at 600. MPa for 3 or 10. min, and stored at 4 or 10°C for up to 12. wk. Warming the QF to 40°C before packaging and exposure to high pressure resulted in loss of free whey from the cheese into the package, lower moisture content, and harder cheese. In phase 2, the control QF, regardless of aging temperature, was significantly softer than HPP cheeses over the 12. wk of storage. Hardness, fracture stress, and fracture rigidity increased with length of exposure time and storage temperature, with minor changes in the other properties. Queso Fresco remained a bright white, weak-bodied cheese that crumbled and did not melt upon heating. Although high pressures or long processing times may be required for the elimination of pathogens, cheese producers must be aware that HPP altered the rheological properties of QF and caused wheying-off in cheeses not pressed before packaging. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.


Sousa A.M.M.,University of Porto | Sousa A.M.M.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit | Souza H.K.S.,University of Porto | Liu L.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit | Goncalves M.P.,University of Porto
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2015

Agar films were produced by thermo-compression using choline chloride (ChCl) as a plasticizer with urea. The three solid components were mixed together with the salt and urea (minor components) added to agar (main component) according to a fixed mass ratio of, respectively, 1.16:1:5. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with three parameters, 23, was used to evaluate the effects of temperature (X1; °C), time (X2; min) and applied load (X3; kN) of heat-pressing on the maximum tensile strength (TS) of the films (Y; MPa). Mixtures of urea and agar prepared at a mass ratio of 1:5 did not form homogeneous films suggesting the important plasticizing role of the salt. Heat-pressing the mixtures at more draconian conditions led to much darker and opaque films, with better mechanical resistance (higher values of TS). The most resistant film (~15MPa) was obtained at 140°C, 20min and 176kN. Selected films, including the optimal, showed similar water sorption profiles and close values of water vapor permeability (~2.5-3.7×10-9gm-1s-1Pa-1). The fracture behavior and mechanical properties of the films were greatly affected by additional water plasticization when the films were stored at different conditions of relative humidity. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2013

Energy-savings measures have been implemented in fluid milk plants to lower energy costs and the energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although these measures have resulted in reductions in steam, electricity, compressed air, and refrigeration use of up to 30%, a benchmarking framework is necessary to examine the implementation of process-specific measures that would lower energy use, costs, and CO2 emissions even further. In this study, using information provided by the dairy industry and equipment vendors, a customizable model of the fluid milk process was developed for use in process design software to benchmark the electrical and fuel energy consumption and CO2 emissions of current processes. It may also be used to test the feasibility of new processing concepts to lower energy and CO2 emissions with calculation of new capital and operating costs. The accuracy of the model in predicting total energy usage of the entire fluid milk process and the pasteurization step was validated using available literature and industry energy data. Computer simulation of small (40.0 million L/yr), medium (113.6 million L/yr), and large (227.1 million L/yr) processing plants predicted the carbon footprint of milk, defined as grams of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per kilogram of packaged milk, to within 5% of the value of 96 g of CO 2e/kg of packaged milk obtained in an industry-conducted life cycle assessment and also showed, in agreement with the same study, that plant size had no effect on the carbon footprint of milk but that larger plants were more cost effective in producing milk. Analysis of the pasteurization step showed that increasing the percentage regeneration of the pasteurizer from 90 to 96% would lower its thermal energy use by almost 60% and that implementation of partial homogenization would lower electrical energy use and CO2e emissions of homogenization by 82 and 5.4%, respectively. It was also demonstrated that implementation of steps to lower non-process-related electrical energy in the plant would be more effective in lowering energy use and CO2e emissions than fuel-related energy reductions. The model also predicts process-related water usage, but this portion of the model was not validated due to a lack of data. The simulator model can serve as a benchmarking framework for current plant operations and a tool to test cost-effective process upgrades or evaluate new technologies that improve the energy efficiency and lower the carbon footprint of milk processing plants.


Bonnaillie L.M.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit | Tomasula P.M.,Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit
Polymers | Year: 2015

Protein-based and other hydrophilic thin films are promising materials for the manufacture of edible food packaging and other food and non-food applications. Calcium caseinate (CaCas) films are highly hygroscopic and physical characterization under broad environmental conditions is critical to application development and film optimization. A new technology, humidity-controlled dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA-RH) was explored to characterize CaCas/glycerol films (3:1 ratio) during isohume temperature (T) ramps and steps, and isothermal RH ramps and steps, to determine their mechanical and moisture-sorption properties during extensive T and RH variations. When RH and/or T increased, CaCas/Gly films became strongly plasticized and underwent several primary and secondary humidity-dependent transition temperatures (or transition humidities); the CaCas/Gly network hypothetically rearranged itself to adapt to the increased water-content and heat-induced molecular mobility. Between 5-40 °C and 20%-61% RH, moisture-sorption was rapid and proportional to humidity between transition points and accelerated greatly during transitions. CaCas/Gly films seemed unsuitable for storage or utilization in warm/humid conditions as they lost their mechanical integrity around Tm ~ 40 °C at 50% RH and Tm decreased greatly with increased RH. However, below Tm, both moisture- and heat-induced structural changes in the films were fully reversible and casein films may withstand a variety of moderate abuse conditions. © 2015 by the authors.


PubMed | University of Porto and Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit
Type: | Journal: International journal of biological macromolecules | Year: 2015

Agar films were produced by thermo-compression using choline chloride (ChCl) as a plasticizer with urea. The three solid components were mixed together with the salt and urea (minor components) added to agar (main component) according to a fixed mass ratio of, respectively, 1.16:1:5. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with three parameters, 2(3), was used to evaluate the effects of temperature (X1; C), time (X2; min) and applied load (X3; kN) of heat-pressing on the maximum tensile strength (TS) of the films (Y; MPa). Mixtures of urea and agar prepared at a mass ratio of 1:5 did not form homogeneous films suggesting the important plasticizing role of the salt. Heat-pressing the mixtures at more draconian conditions led to much darker and opaque films, with better mechanical resistance (higher values of TS). The most resistant film ( 15 MPa) was obtained at 140C, 20 min and 176 kN. Selected films, including the optimal, showed similar water sorption profiles and close values of water vapor permeability ( 2.5-3.7 10(-9)gm(-1)s(-1)Pa(-1)). The fracture behavior and mechanical properties of the films were greatly affected by additional water plasticization when the films were stored at different conditions of relative humidity.

Loading Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit collaborators
Loading Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit collaborators