Dairy and Food Culture Technologies

Centennial, CO, United States

Dairy and Food Culture Technologies

Centennial, CO, United States
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Sanders M.E.,Dairy and Food Culture Technologies | Levy D.D.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2011

Presented by the New York Academy of Sciences, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the U.S. Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health, the symposium "Probiotic Foods and Supplements: The Science and Regulations of Labeling," was held on June 12, 2010 at the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY, the goals of which were to facilitate the exchange of ideas regarding labeling and substantiation of claims for probiotics among academic, industry, and regulatory professionals, and to discuss ways to translate and communicate research results in a truthful way to the consumer and to such health professionals as physicians, pharmacists, and dieticians. The target audience for this symposium included academicians interested in conducting research on the health benefits of probiotics; scientists; communications personnel, and regulatory specialists from companies involved in, or interested in, the marketing of probiotics; U.S. government regulatory experts tasked with oversight of probiotic foods and dietary supplement products; and other experts in the field interested in the development of probiotics for the U.S. market. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

Sanders M.E.,Dairy and Food Culture Technologies | Marco M.L.,University of California at Davis
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Probiotic bacteria are increasingly incorporated into food products intended to confer health benefits in the human gut and beyond. Little is known about how the food matrix and product formulation impacts probiotic functionality, even though such information is essential to scientific understanding and regulatory substantiation of health benefits. The food format has the potential to affect probiotic survival, physiology, and potentially efficacy, but few comparative studies in humans have been conducted. Human studies should account for the effects of the food base on human health and the bioactive components present in the foods that may augment or diminish interactions of the probiotic with the human host. Some studies show that food ingredients such as prebiotics and milk components can improve probiotic survival during the shelf life of foods, which may enhance probiotic efficacy through increased dose effects. Furthermore, there are indications that synbiotic products are more effective than either probiotics or prebiotics alone. Identification of probiotic adaptations to the food and gut environments holds promise for determining the specific cell components and potential bacterial-food interactions necessary for health benefits and determining how these factors are affected by changes in food formulation and host diet. These studies, combined with controlled human studies, are important future research activities for advancing this field. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Sanders M.E.,Dairy and Food Culture Technologies | Guarner F.,University of Barcelona | Guerrant R.,University of Virginia | Holt P.R.,Rockefeller University | And 4 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2013

Probiotics are derived from traditional fermented foods, from beneficial commensals or from the environment. They act through diverse mechanisms affecting the composition or function of the commensal microbiota and by altering host epithelial and immunological responses. Certain probiotic interventions have shown promise in selected clinical conditions where aberrant microbiota have been reported, such as atopic dermatitis, necrotising enterocolitis, pouchitis and possibly irritable bowel syndrome. However, no studies have been conducted that can causally link clinical improvements to probiotic-induced microbiota changes. Whether a disease-prone microbiota pattern can be remodelled to a more robust, resilient and disease-free state by probiotic administration remains a key unanswered question. Progress in this area will be facilitated by: optimising strain, dose and product formulations, including protective commensal species; matching these formulations with selectively responsive subpopulations; and identifying ways to manipulate diet to modify bacterial profiles and metabolism.

Backhed F.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital | Fraser C.M.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Ringel Y.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Sanders M.E.,Dairy and Food Culture Technologies | And 5 more authors.
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2012

Indigenous microbiota are an essential component in the modern concept of human health, but the composition and functional characteristics of a healthy microbiome remain to be precisely defined. Patterns of microbial colonization associated with disease states have been documented, but the health-associated microbial patterns and their functional characteristics are less clear. A healthy microbiome, considered in the context of body habitat or body site, could be described in terms of ecologic stability (i.e., ability to resist community structure change under stress or to rapidly return to baseline following a stress-related change), by an idealized (presumably health-associated) composition or by a desirable functional profile (including metabolic and trophic provisions to the host). Elucidation of the properties of healthy microbiota would provide a target for dietary interventions and/or microbial modifications aimed at sustaining health in generally healthy populations and improving the health of individuals exhibiting disrupted microbiota and associated diseases. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Sanders M.E.,Dairy and Food Culture Technologies
Gut microbes | Year: 2010

The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are alive when administered, and unlike other food or drug ingredients, possess the potential for infectivity or in situ toxin production. Since numerous types of microbes are used as probiotics, safety is also intricately tied to the nature of the specific microbe being used. The presence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes, which comprises a theoretical risk of transfer to a less innocuous member of the gut microbial community, must also be considered. Genetic stability of the probiotic over time, deleterious metabolic activities, and the potential for pathogenicity or toxicogenicity must be assessed depending on the characteristics of the genus and species of the microbe being used. Immunological effects must be considered, especially in certain vulnerable populations, including infants with undeveloped immune function. A few reports about negative probiotic effects have surfaced, the significance of which would be better understood with more complete understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic interaction with the host and colonizing microbes. Use of readily available and low cost genomic sequencing technologies to assure the absence of genes of concern is advisable for candidate probiotic strains. The field of probiotic safety is characterized by the scarcity of studies specifically designed to assess safety contrasted with the long history of safe use of many of these microbes in foods.

Sanders M.E.,Dairy and Food Culture Technologies
Gut microbes | Year: 2011

The topic of "Health Claims Substantiation for Probiotic and Prebiotic Products" was discussed at the 8 (th) annual International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) meeting. The topic is especially timely considering that the regulatory review process for health benefit claims on probiotic and prebiotic products in Europe has not resulted in a single claim being approved (120 negative opinions on probiotic claims and 19 negative opinions on prebiotic claims through February 2011). This situation in Europe and elsewhere has driven companies to seek clarity on a research path that would stand up to scientific scrutiny as well as satisfy regulatory demands for health claim substantiation. It can be challenging to negotiate rigid regulatory distinctions, such as between health and disease, when these states are more realistically represented by continua. One research approach focused on improved homeostasis is explored as a statistically robust approach to measuring physiological parameters in healthy populations, which are the required target for food and supplement claims. Diverse global regulatory frameworks complicate this issue, and harmonization of different approaches globally would simplify requirements for industry, decrease consumer confusion and improve the scientific framework for the research community to set up appropriate research pathways. This report highlights key points from this discussion. 

Sanders M.E.,Dairy and Food Culture Technologies
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2011

Although precise mechanisms responsible for all demonstrations of probiotic health benefits are not known, many lines of evidence suggest that probiotics function through direct or indirect impact on colonizing microbiota of the gut. Probiotics can directly influence colonizing microbes through multiple mechanisms, including the production of inhibitory compounds (bacteriocins, short chain fatty acids, and others), by producing substrates that might promote the growth of colonizing microbes (secreted exopolysaccharides, vitamins, fatty acids, sugars from undigested carbohydrates and others), and by promoting immune responses against specific microbes. Indirectly, probiotics can influence colonizing microbes by inhibiting attachment through stimulated mucin production, reinforcing gut barrier effects, and downregulation of gut inflammation, thereby promoting microbes that are associated with a healthier gut physiology. Although the value of targeted changes in populations of gut bacteria is a matter of debate, increased levels of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the gut correlate with numerous health endpoints. Microbiota changes due to probiotic intake include increased numbers of related phylotypes, decreasing pathogens and their toxins, altering bacterial community structure to enhance evenness, stabilizing bacterial communities when perturbed (eg, with antibiotics), or promoting a more rapid recovery from a perturbation. Further research will provide insight into the degree of permanence of probiotic-induced changes, although research to date suggests that continued probiotic consumption is needed for sustained impact. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Klein M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Sanders M.E.,Dairy and Food Culture Technologies | Duong T.,Texas A&M University | Young H.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2010

"Probiotics: From Bench to Market" was a one-day conference convened by the New York Academy of Sciences on June 11, 2010, with the goal of stimulating discussion of the physiological effects of probiotics on the gastrointestinal, nervous, and immune systems. The program included speakers from academia, industry, and government to give conference participants a full understanding of the state of the field of probiotics. The overall goal of the program was to increase communication and collaboration among these groups to advance probiotic research and probiotic contributions to public health. The conference was divided into three sessions and included both oral and visual presentations as well as panel discussions. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

King S.,York Health Economics Consortium | Glanville J.,York Health Economics Consortium | Sanders M.E.,Dairy and Food Culture Technologies | Fitzgerald A.,York Health Economics Consortium | Varley D.,York Health Economics Consortium
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Recent systematic reviews have reported a positive, although modest, effect of probiotics in terms of preventing common cold symptoms. In this systematic review, the effect of probiotics, specifically Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains, on the duration of acute respiratory infections in otherwise healthy children and adults was evaluated. To identify relevant trials, eight databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Technology Assessment (HTA), Science Citation Index (SCI) and OAISTER, were searched from inception to 20 July 2012. Details regarding unpublished studies/databases were also obtained from probiotic manufacturers. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by two reviewers. Risk of bias was assessed using criteria adapted from those published by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. In this review, twenty randomised controlled trials (RCT) were included, of which twelve were considered to have a low risk of bias. Meta-analysis revealed significantly fewer numbers of days of illness per person (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0·31 (95 % CI -0·41, -0·11), I 2=3 %), shorter illness episodes by almost a day (weighted mean difference -0·77 (95 % CI -1·50, -0·04), I 2= 80 %) (without an increase in the number of illness episodes), and fewer numbers of days absent from day care/school/work (SMD -0·17 (95 % CI -0·31, -0·03), I 2= 67 %) in participants who received a probiotic intervention than in those who had taken a placebo. Reasons for heterogeneity between the studies were explored in subgroup analysis, but could not be explained, suggesting that the effect sizes found may differ between the population groups. This systematic review provides evidence from a number of good-quality RCT that probiotics reduce the duration of illness in otherwise healthy children and adults. Copyright © The Authors 2014 The Authors 2014. The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution licence.

Sanders M.E.,Dairy and Food Culture Technologies
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

The field of probiotics continues to evolve and progress. This paper reviews several situations within the probiotic field that are of current interest, including review of the scope of the proper use of the term "probiotic," use of systematic reviews and metaanalyses for probiotics, regulatory challenges to doing human research on probiotics in the United States, medical recommendations for probiotic use, and safety assurance for probiotics used for vulnerable populations. The greatest need in the probiotic field remains well-conducted and well-reported human trials, to better define the functionality of probiotics for different indications and populations. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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