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Kwon D.Y.,Korean Food Research Institutes | Daily III J.W.,Daily Manufacturing Inc. | Kim H.J.,Korean Food Research Institutes | Park S.,Hoseo University
Nutrition Research | Year: 2010

Historically, the incidence of type 2 diabetes has been lower in Asian populations compared with those in Western countries. One possible reason for the lower incidence among Asians is that they consume fermented soybean products, which are unique to the traditional Asian diet. Some have hypothesized that dietary phytoestrogens and soy peptides in fermented soybean foods consumed in traditional Asian diets may help prevent and slow the progression of type 2 diabetes. This review evaluates the existing evidence from animal studies and clinical and epidemiologic investigations on fermented soybeans in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Nutritional studies performed in animals and intervention studies with humans suggest that the ingestion of soy protein with isoflavones improves glucose control and reduces insulin resistance. Korean fermented soybean products such as doenjang, kochujang, and chungkookjang contain alterations in the structures and content of isoflavonoids and small bioactive peptides, which are produced during fermentation. Several studies revealed improvements in insulin resistance and insulin secretion with the consumption of these fermented products. Therefore, fermented soybean products may help prevent or attenuate the progression of type 2 diabetes. Although the lack of human intervention trials does not permit definitive conclusions, the evidence does suggest that fermented soy products may be better for preventing or delaying the progression of type 2 diabetes compared with nonfermented soybeans. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Park S.,Hoseo University | Kim D.S.,Hoseo University | Daily J.W.,Daily Manufacturing Inc. | Kim S.-H.,Catholic Kwandong University
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews | Year: 2011

Background: Prolactin improves glucose homeostasis by increasing β-cell mass under certain conditions such as pregnancy, whereas hyperprolactinaemia due to a pituitary gland adenoma tumour exacerbates insulin resistance. However, previous studies have not evaluated how prolactin modulates β-cell function and insulin sensitivity at different dosages. Here, we determined that chronic intraperitoneal injections of different dosages of prolactin have opposite effects on insulin resistance and β-cell function and mass in 90% pancreatectomized diabetic male rats, and the mechanisms were explored. Methods: Diabetic rats were divided into three groups according to the dose of intraperitoneally injected prolactin for 4 weeks: (1) low dose of prolactin (25 μg/kg bw/12 h), (2) high dose of prolactin (250 μg/kg bw/12 h), and (3) vehicle. As a non-diabetic control group, sham-operated rats were injected with vehicle. Results: Chronic high- and low-dose prolactin injections elevated serum prolactin levels by 2.5- and 11.8-fold, respectively. Both dosages promoted β-cell mass by increasing β-cell proliferation and neogenesis through the potentiation of phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and decreased menin expression in diabetic rats. However, only the low-dose prolactin injection potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion though glucokinase and glucose transporter 2 induction in the diabetic rats. In addition, low-dose prolactin decreased hepatic glucose output in hyperinsulinaemic states, indicating an improvement in hepatic insulin resistance. However, the high-dose prolactin injection exacerbated whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance in diabetic rats. Conclusions: In contrast to the normal adaptive increases in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through expanded β-cell mass and insulin sensitivity realized with moderately increased prolactin levels, high levels of prolactin exacerbate insulin resistance and impair the insulin-secretory capacity in diabetic mice. © 2011 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Park J.-A.,Chonbuk National University | Tirupathi Pichiah P.B.,Chonbuk National University | Yu J.-J.,Woosuk University | Oh S.-H.,Woosuk University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2012

Aims: In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of kimchi (Korean traditional fermented vegetable) fermented either without starter culture or with a specific starter culture, Weissella koreensis OK1-6. Methods and Results: C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups (n = 7); normal diet, HF (high-fat diet), HF-KC (high-fat diet containing 3% kimchi manufactured without starter) and HF-KCO (high-fat diet containing 3% kimchi manufactured with the starter culture W. koreensis OK1-6). After 12 weeks of dietary intervention, the mice were killed, and serum and tissue samples were examined. Serum and hepatic lipid profile, insulin, leptin concentration and expression level of lipid anabolic genes like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, liver X receptor α and SREBP2 were significantly decreased (<0·05) along with body and epididymal fat pad weight in the HF-KCO group compared with the HF-KC and HF group. Conclusions: These results suggested that kimchi fermented with the starter W. koreensis OK1-6 has anti-obesity effects in HF-induced obese mice. Significance and Impact of the Study: These results may contribute to nutraceutical and food industries in developing functional food and probiotics based therapies for the treatment and prevention of obesity. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Park K.-Y.,Pusan National University | Jeong J.-K.,Pusan National University | Lee Y.-E.,Wonkwang University | Daily J.W.,Daily Manufacturing Inc.
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2014

Kimchi is a traditional Korean food manufactured by fermenting vegetables with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Many bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB become dominant while the putrefactive bacteria are suppressed during salting of baechu cabbage and the fermentation. The addition of other subingredients and formation of fermentation byproducts of LAB promote the fermentation process of LAB to eventually lead to eradication of putrefactive- and pathogenic bacteria, and also increase the functionalities of kimchi. Accordingly, kimchi can be considered a vegetable probiotic food that contributes health benefits in a similar manner as yogurt as a dairy probiotic food. Further, the major ingredients of kimchi are cruciferous vegetables; and other healthy functional foods such as garlic, ginger, red pepper powder, and so on are added to kimchi as subingredients. As all of these ingredients undergo fermentation by LAB, kimchi is regarded as a source of LAB; and the fermentative byproducts from the functional ingredients significantly boost its functionality. Because kimchi is both tasty and highly functional, it is typically served with steamed rice at every Korean meal. Health functionality of kimchi, based upon our research and that of other, includes anticancer, antiobesity, anticonstipation, colorectal health promotion, probiotic properties, cholesterol reduction, fibrolytic effect, antioxidative and antiaging properties, brain health promotion, immune promotion, and skin health promotion. In this review we describe the method of kimchi manufacture, fermentation, health functionalities of kimchi and the probiotic properties of its LAB. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 2014.

James D.,Daily Manufacturing Inc. | Kang S.,Hoseo University | Park S.,Hoseo University
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2014

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes, two diseases that contribute considerable morbidity and mortality in middle-age and elderly people, coexist and progress in parallel, leading to the presumption that one may cause the other. However, a causative link has not yet been established. Methods: This study used non-diabetic and diabetic rats injected with β-amyloid (25-35) into the CA1 of the hippocampus to induce AD like plaques as a model of early-stage AD to evaluate the effects of AD on energy metabolism. AD like cognitive dysfunction was confirmed using passive avoidance tests and Morris water maze tests. Results: Diabetic and non-diabetic rats with experimental AD exhibited memory deficits by β-amyloid (25-35) accumulation in the hippocampus, but diabetes exacerbated memory impairment. All rats, diabetic and non-diabetic, infused with β-amyloid had profound decreases in energy intake, activity and fat oxidation and increased carbohydrate oxidation and energy expenditure. Energy expenditure was increased by 8-10% and energy intake decreased by approximately 20% in the rats injected with β-amyloid regardless of diabetic status. Conclusions: These results suggest that AD type plaques in the brain may induce metabolic disturbances and cachexia in early AD, which may be an early warning sign of AD in humans. © Springer International Publishing 2014.

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