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Imeni Vladimira Il'icha Lenina, Russia

Kamchatnov P.R.,Moscow State University | Abusueva B.A.,Dagestan State Medical Academy | Kazakov A.Y.,Moscow State University
Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psihiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova | Year: 2014

The results of experimental studies and clinical trials of alpha-lipoic acid drugs are presented. Antioxidant and neuroprotective effects provide the efficacy of these drugs in patients with different diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Good tolerability and possibilities of using in combinations with other drugs give grounds for a wide application of the drug in neurological practice. © 2014, Media Sphera. All rights reserved.

Makhacheva Kh.G.,P.A. College | Askhabova L.M.,Dagestan State Medical Academy
Voprosy Prakticheskoi Pediatrii | Year: 2014

The article analyzes primary morbidity in the paediatric population in the Republic of Dagestan. Analysis of the frequency of visits to paediatric medical institutions has shown that diseases of the respiratory organs (37.6% of cases), of the digestive organs (14.7%), and also injuries and poisoning (7.5%) are the most common. In the structure of primary morbidity of children, the percentage of diseases of the ENT organs is 4.6%, of them diseases of the ears and the mastoid bone account for 2.7% (including chronic otitis media - 0.2%), chronic diseases of the tonsils and adenoids (peritonsillar abscess - 1.2%, chronic pharyngitis, nasopharyngitis, sinusitis and rhinitis - 0.5%). Comparison of paediatric morbidity with the mean values in the North-Caucasian autonomous area and the Russian Federation has shown that in the Republic of Dagestan children more rarely suffer tumours, diseases of the ear and the mastoid bone, circulatory and respiratory organs; congenital abnormalities and malformations are also more rarely recorded. On the other hand, morbidity among patients with diseases of blood and haematopoietic organs, endocrine and digestive systems in the Republic of Dagestan is higher.

Makhacheva Kh.G.,P.A. College | Daykhes N.A.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency | Askhabova L.M.,Dagestan State Medical Academy
Voprosy Prakticheskoi Pediatrii | Year: 2015

Overall introduction of the programme of audiologic screening of newborns, beginning with the first years of their life (at the level of maternity clinics), is one of the key aspects of adequate rehabilitation of patients with hearing loss and deafness. The authors analyzed the expected long-term effectiveness from introduction of the system of universal two-level audiologic screening of children, including recording of otoacoustic emission and short latency auditory evoked potentials. The expedience of early diagnosis of hearing disorders in newborns and children of the first year of life has been assessed and a comparative analysis of the strategies of performing audiologic screening of newborns and infants of the first year of life has been performed. The existing types of screening and the requirements for their administration are discussed in detail; and indicators of the quality of performing audiologic screening have been proposed.

Pyshkina L.I.,Russian National Research Medical University | Khatagova D.T.,Russian National Research Medical University | Kabanov A.A.,Russian National Research Medical University | Darvish N.A.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Alibekova Z.M.,Dagestan State Medical Academy
Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psihiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova | Year: 2014

Objectives. To study the cerebral and central hemodynamics in patients with stenotic lesions of inner carotid arteries (ICA) before and after reconstructive surgery. Material and methods. Fifty-nine patients, aged from 46 to 78 years, with >50% atherosclerotic stenosis of ICA who underwent preventive carotid endarterectomy (CEAE) were examined. The isolate stenosis of ICA was identified in 13.6% of patients, concomitant lesions of brachiocephalic arteries in 86.4%. Atherosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries were found in 91.1% of patients and those of arteries of lower extremities in 45.8%. In 25.5% of patients, the heart surgery was performed before the current hospitalization. Heterogeneous atherosclerotic plaques with dense or hyperdense components were more frequents in symptomatic stenosis (63.3%). The maximal stenosis was identified in heterogeneous hyperechogenic plaques, the minimal ones in homogenous hypoechogenic plaques. Parameters of central hemodynamics were better in patients with 2nd stage of reconstructive surgeries. The emission fraction decreased proportionally to the degree of stenosis. The parameters of cerebral hemodynamics were significantly decreased in ICA stenosis and improved in the early post-surgery period. Results. CEAE promoted the improvement of cognitive functions and the recovery of motor functions. The best positive dynamics was recorded in asymptomatic ICA stenosis. Poor outcome (transitory ischemic attacks, urgent surgery, restenosis) was found in patients with low levels of central and cerebral hemodynamics 12-24 months after the discharge. Moreover, smoking and the degree of stenosis predicted poor outcome. Conclusions. Surgical treatment in combination with the complex pharmacotherapy (hypotensive drugs, antiaggregants and statins) had the maximal effect, including the remote period.

Shamov I.A.,Dagestan State Medical Academy
Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psihiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova | Year: 2015

Hakim-Adams syndrome is little known, although quite common disease. The etiology is not fully clear. Pathogenetic mechanisms included the blockage of cerebrospinal fluid outflow along the upper lateral surface of the brain, development of hydrocephalus with the expansion of the brain ventricles while maintaining normotensive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Main manifestations are ataxia, apraxia, symptoms of dementia and urinary disturbances, up to incontinence. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, exploratory lumbar and neuroimaging. Main treatment is ventriculoperitoneal (stomach) shunt placement for fluid drainage. Timely surgical intervention gives good results and improves quality of life of patients. © 2015, Media Sphera. All rights reserved.

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