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Cha J.-Y.,Daesun Distilling Co. | Ahn H.-Y.,Dong - A University | Cho Y.-S.,Dong - A University | Je J.-Y.,Chonnam National University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

This study was to investigate the protective effect of cordycepin-enriched Cordyceps militaris against alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol-feeding rats were fed diets with Paecilomyces japonica as CPJ group, C. militaris as CCM group, cordycepin-enriched C. militaris as CCMα group at the 3% (w/w) level and silymarin at the 0.1% (w/w) level for 4. weeks. Alcohol administration resulted in a significant increase in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the levels of blood alcohol and acetaldehyde in serum. However, CCMα group markedly prevented from alcohol-induced elevation of these parameters in serum. CCMα group showed the increased both hepatic activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Unlike the action of alcohol treatment on alcoholic fatty liver, CCMα group was also attenuated lipid droplet accumulation in the hepatocytes. Present study was also confirmed the beneficial roles of silymarin (hepatoprotective agent) against alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. Therefore, cordycepin-enriched C. militaris can be a promising candidate to prevent from alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Cha J.-Y.,Daesun Distilling Co. | Park C.-K.,Korea Ginseng Corporation | Cho Y.-S.,Dong - A University
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Effect of chicory root extract (CRE) on the triglyceride metabolism in orotic acid (OA)-fed rats was investigated. Liver weights and hepatic triglyceride concentrations were markedly increased by OA-feeding rats. These results were attributed to the significant increase in the activity of hepatic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), and rate-limiting enzymes for triglyceride synthesis. Supplementation of CRE to OA did significantly reduced the hepatic triglyceride concentrations and DGAT activity without affecting PAP activity. Furthermore, OA treatment was significantly decreased plasma triglyceride (TG) and increased hepatic TG concentrations and reduced microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity without diminishing MTP mRNA expression in rats. However, hepatic TG concentration was significantly decreased and MTP activity was also reduced without diminishing MTP mRNA expression in rats fed simultaneous with OA and CRE diet. The hepatocytes in the OA-feeding rats contained numerous largely fat droplets, but CRE feeding prevented the OA-induced fat accumulation. Present study demonstrates that CRE reduces the liver TG accumulation by reduced DGAT and MTP activities without diminishing MTP mRNA expression by OA administration. © KoSFoST and Springer 2010.


Cha J.-Y.,Daesun Distilling Co. | Lee B.-J.,Marinebioprocess Co. | Je J.-Y.,Chonnam National University | Kang Y.-M.,Marinebioprocess Co. | And 2 more authors.
Fisheries and Aquatic Science | Year: 2011

The sea tangle, Laminaria japonica has long been used in Korea as a folk remedy to promote health. Gamma-amino butyric acid-enriched (5.56% of dry weight) sea tangle was obtained by fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis BJ-20 (FLJ). A suppressive effect of FLJ on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity has been shown previously. Alcohol administration to Sprague-Dawley rats leads to hepatotoxicity, as demonstrated by heightened levels of hepatic marker enzymes as well as increases in both the number and volume of lipid droplets as fatty liver progresses. However, FLJ attenuated alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity and the accumulation of lipid droplets following ethanol administration. Additionally, FLJ increased the activities and transcript levels of major alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, and reduced blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde. These data suggest that FLJ protects against alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity and that FLJ could be used as an ingredient in functional foods to ameliorate the effects of excessive alcohol consumption. © The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Science.


Kang Y.M.,Marine Bioprocess Co. | Lee B.-J.,Marine Bioprocess Co. | Kim J.I.,Dong - A University | Nam B.-H.,Test and Certification Team | And 6 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of fermented sea tangle (FST) on healthy volunteers with high levels of γ-glutamyltransferse (γ-GT). Forty-eight participants were divided into a placebo group and an FST group that received FST (1.5. g/day) for 4. weeks. Serum γ-GT, malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were determined before and after the trial. Administering FST significantly decreased serum levels of γ-GT and MDA. Additionally, SOD and CAT activities were significantly augmented compared to those in the placebo group after 4. weeks, but no significant alteration was observed in GPx activity compared to that in the placebo group. Our findings indicate that FST enhanced the antioxidant defense system in a healthy population and may be useful as a functional food ingredient. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Cha J.-Y.,Daesun Distilling Co. | Kim Y.-S.,National Academy of Agricultural Science | Moon H.-I.,Dong - A University | Cho Y.-S.,Dong - A University
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Bacillus subtilis fermented silkworm powder (BFSP) and Aspergillus kawachii fermented silkworms powder (AFSP) on alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol-feeding rats were fed with diets containing silkworm powder (SP) or both BFSP and AFSP at the 5% (w/w) levels for 4 weeks. Alcohol administration resulted in a significant increase in the activities of liver marker enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Administration of BFSP markedly prevented alcohol-induced elevation of serum AST, γ-GTP and LDH activities, and the levels of blood alcohol and acetaldehyde. Interestingly, in comparison with both SP and AFSP, BFSP administration drastically increased both hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities, suggesting that BFSP was more effective in the reduction of blood alcohol and acetaldehyde. BFSP administration showed the highest induction of hepatic ADH expression in alcohol-feeding rats. Also, alcohol treatment resulted in increasing lipid peroxidative index (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and decreasing antioxidant status (reduced glutathione) in the liver. Thus, these results suggest that BFSP treatment improved the antioxidant status of alcoholic rats by decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidative index and by increasing the levels of antioxidant status in the liver and serum. Specially, the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, free fatty acid and hepatic triglyceride were increased, but these parameters were significantly influenced by the BFSP in the alcohol treatment. Unlike the action of alcohol treatment on fatty liver, BFSP administration attenuated lipid droplet accumulation in hepatocytes. A high level of ADH was also observed in AFSP administered rats; on the other hand, a significant change in ALDH was not observed. Therefore, the SP can be a promising candidate in the prevention alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.


Hyun Ju Yang,Pusan National University | Hyun Ju Yang,Daesun Distilling Co. | Jun Seung Lee,Pusan National University | Ji Young Cha,Pusan National University | Baik H.S.,Pusan National University
Molecules and Cells | Year: 2011

Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci causes wildfire disease in tobacco plants. The hrp pathogenicity island (hrp PAI) of P. syringae pv. tabaci encodes a type III secretion system (TTSS) and its regulatory system, which are required for pathogenesis in plants. Three important regulatory proteins- HrpR, HrpS, and HrpL-have been identified to activate hrp PAI gene expression. The bacterial Lon protease regulates the expression of various genes. To investigate the regulatory mechanism of the Lon protease in P. syringae pv. tabaci 11528, we cloned the lon gene, and then a ?lon mutant was generated by allelic exchange. lon mutants showed increased UV sensitivity, which is a typical feature of such mutants. The ?lon mutant produced higher levels of tabtoxin than the wild-type. The lacZ gene was fused with hrpA promoter and activity of ß-galactosidase was measured in hrp-repressing and hrp-inducing media. The Lon protease functioned as a negative regulator of hrp PAI under hrp-repressing conditions. We found that strains with lon disruption elicited the host defense system more rapidly and strongly than the wild-type strain, suggesting that the Lon protease is essential for systemic pathogenesis. © 2011 KSMCB.


Cha J.-Y.,Daesun Distilling Co. | Yang H.-J.,Daesun Distilling Co. | Moon H.-I.,Dong - A University | Cho Y.-S.,Dong - A University
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology | Year: 2012

Present study was investigated the effect of each or complex of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, and valine) on melanin production in B16F0 melanoma cells treated with various concentrations (1-16mM) for 72h. Among the 20 amino acids, lysine and glycine showed the highest activities of DPPH radical scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, respectively. Each and combination of BCAAs reduced melanogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner without any morphological changes and cell viability in melanoma cells. Present study was also investigated the inhibitory effects of each or complex of BCAAs at each 10mM concentration on the 100 μM IBMX-mediated stimulation of melanogenesis in melanoma cells for 72h and found that IBMX treatment was stimulated to enhance melanin synthesis and that the complex of BCAAs was the most effectively inhibited in the melanin amounts of cellular and extracellular and the whitening the cell pellet. When the inhibitory effect of BCAAs on tyrosinase was examined by intracellular tyrosinase assay, both isoleucine and valine exhibit slightly inhibition, but leucine and combination of BCAAs did not inhibit the cell-derived tyrosinase activity. Present study demonstrated that complex of BCAAs inhibited melanin production without changes intercellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, the complex of BCAAs may be used in development of safe potentially depigmenting agents. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Kwak Y.-J.,Dong - A University | Kim K.-S.,Dong - A University | Kim K.-M.,Dong - A University | Yu H.Y.,Dong - A University | And 5 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

We assessed the effects of chloroform extract of fermented Viola mandshurica (CEFV) on melanogenesis B16 melanoma cells. CEFV treatment significantly decreased melanin content and tyrosinase activity in dose-dependent manners. To elucidate the mechanism of the inhibitory effects of CEFV on melanogenesis, we performed RT-PCR and Western blotting for melanogenesis- related genes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinaserelated protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, and microphthalmiaassociated transcription factor (MITF). CEFV strongly inhibited mRNA as well as the protein expression of tyrosinase and MITF, but had no significant effect on TRP-1 or TRP-2 expressions. It markedly decreased the phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), and induced the duration of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, leading to reduction of MITF expression and subsequently that of tyrosinase. Therefore, we suggest that CEFV induces downregulation of melanogenesis through decreased CREB phosphorylation and ERK activation.


Cha J.-Y.,Daesun Distilling Co. | Yang H.-J.,Daesun Distilling Co. | Moon H.-I.,Dong - A University | Cho Y.-S.,Dong - A University
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Nowadays, herbal foods of skin-whitening cosmetics are popular with Asian women. To investigate the efficacy of Korean herbs having skin-whitening activity, we screened eight kinds of herbs exhibiting high inhibition activity of mushroom tyrosinase among traditional herbs selected based on the Korean herbal foods literature. The mixture of eight herbs was extracted with water (each at 2%) and then fermented with Phellinus linteus. The 9-day fermented product was potently anti-melanogenetic when tested against cultured B16F0 mouse melanoma cells and had a high phenolic content, and so was used in subsequent melanogenesis experiments. The whitening effect of the P. linteus complex culture broth (P. linteus culture broth with Glycyrrhiza glabra, Broussonetia kazinoki, Angelica gigas, Atractylodes macrocephala, Poria cocos, Morus alba (root bark), Paeonia albiflora, and Lithospermum officinale) was evaluated by measurement of melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and Western blot in melanoma cells. P. linteus complex culture broth dose-dependently inhibited melanin and tyrosinase activity, and reduced melanogenesis-related proteins including tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in cells stimulated with 100μM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX; which elevates cellular cAMP). However, P. linteus complex culture broth exhibited no inhibitory effects on tyrosinase related protein-1 and tyrosinase related protein-2. Additionally, we examined the involvement of P. linteus complex culture broth in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway. P. linteus complex culture broth markedly inhibited the reduction of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation induced by LY294002, a selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt. These results suggest that P. linteus complex culture broth inhibits melanogenesis through the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta signaling pathway and down-regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, and also suggests that P. linteus complex culture broth may be an effective inhibitor of hyperpigmentation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Daesun Distilling Co.
Type: | Journal: Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry | Year: 2013

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Monascus purpureus-fermented Angelicae gigantis Radix (FAG) on body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, biochemical markers of obesity, and the mRNA expression levels of various genes involved in adipogenesis in a high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced rat model of obesity. Effect of nodakenin isolated from Angelicae gigantis on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation was also investigated in vitro. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=6 per group) based on five dietary categories: HFD control, HFD + 2.5% (w/w) AG, HFD + 5% AG, HFD + 2.5% FAG, and HFD + 5% FAG. Present study investigated nodakenin isolated from AG and FAG roots by measuring fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte using Oil Red O staining. FAG administration effectively lowered the body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and hepatic and serum lipid and leptin concentrations in obese rats. In addition, FAG administration significantly reduced the mRNA expression levels of adipose tissue genes encoding adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor 2 (PPAR2), and CCAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) as compared with HFD group. Furthermore, nodakenin reduced the fat accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. FAG ameliorates HFD-induced obesity, probably by modulating multiple genes associated with adipogenesis in the visceral fat tissue of rats. Accordingly, fermented Angelicae gigantis may be an ideal candidate for obesity relief.

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