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Lee S.-M.,University Institute of Health Sciences | Cho Y.,University Institute of Health Sciences | Chung H.-K.,University Institute of Health Sciences | Shin D.-H.,DAESANG FNF Corporation | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition Research and Practice | Year: 2012

We tested the effects of dietary intake of freeze-dried Korean traditional fermented cabbage (generally known as kimchi) with varying amounts of sodium on blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), as a control group, received a regular AIN-76 diet, and the SHRs were divided into four groups. The SHR group was fed a regular diet without kimchi supplementation, the SHR-L group was fed the regular diet supplemented with low sodium kimchi containing 1.4% salt by wet weight, which was provided in a freeze-dried form, the SHR-M group was supplemented with medium levels of sodium kimchi containing 2.4% salt, and the SHR-H group was supplemented with high sodium kimchi containing 3.0% salt. Blood pressure was measured over 6 weeks, and cardiac hypertrophy was examined by measuring heart and left ventricle weights and cardiac histology. SHRs showed higher blood pressure compared to that in WKY rats, which was further elevated by consuming high sodium containing kimchi but was not influenced by supplementing with low sodium kimchi. None of the SHR groups showed significant differences in cardiac and left ventricular mass or cardiomyocyte size. Levels of serum biochemical parameters, including blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, sodium, and potassium were not different among the groups. Elevations in serum levels of aldosterone in SHR rats decreased in the low sodium kimchi group. These results suggest that consuming low sodium kimchi may not adversely affect blood pressure and cardiac function even under a hypertensive condition. © 2012 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition.


Jun H.-I.,Chonbuk National University | Kim Y.-A.,Daesang FNF Co. | Kim Y.-S.,Chonbuk National University
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

The antioxidant activities of extracts from Rubus coreanus Miquel (black raspberry) and Morus alba L. (mulberry) fruits were investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and reducing power assay. Aqueous mixtures of ethanol, methanol, and acetone were analyzed in order to determine the most effective extraction solvent for the two fruits. Black raspberry and mulberry extracts with the 60:40 acetone-water mixtures (v/v) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activities (56.2 and 85.2%, respectively) compared to the other extraction solvents. The 60% acetone extract was finally selected as an extraction solvent and then sequentially fractionated according to solvent polarity. Among the fractions of the two fruits, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity as well as total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. In addition, there were high correlation coefficients between antioxidant activities and their contents. The EC50 value of the ethyl acetate fraction from mulberry fruit was 2.2 times lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in DPPH assay. The major phenolic acid and anthocyanin of the two fruits were protocatechuic acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside, respectively.

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