Kettle C.J.,ETH Zurich |
Ghazoul J.,ETH Zurich |
Ashton P.,Harvard University |
Cannon C.H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences |
And 23 more authors.
Conservation Letters | Year: 2011
The recent mass fruiting of forest trees in Borneo is an urgent wakeup call: existing policy instruments, financial mechanisms, and forestry infrastructure are inadequate to take full advantage of these infrequent opportunities for forest restoration and conservation. Tropical forest restoration can provide substantial benefits for biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation, and poverty alleviation. Yet the unpredictability of the synchronized flowering and consequent mass fruiting of many forest trees in Borneo presents a distinctive set of challenges for forest restoration. Significant financing and a considerable coordinated effort are required to prepare for future mass fruiting events if we are to capitalize on opportunities for ecological restoration. The continued high rate of forest clearance in this region and the rarity of mass fruiting events suggest that there may be few remaining opportunities to prevent widespread species extinctions. In this article we propose a facilitatory policy framework for forest restoration in Borneo to stimulate action in advance of the next mass fruiting of forest trees. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Slik J.W.F.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden |
Paoli G.,Daemeter Consulting |
Mcguire K.,Barnard College |
Barroso J.,Federal University of Acre |
And 58 more authors.
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2013
Aim: Large trees (d.b.h.≥70cm) store large amounts of biomass. Several studies suggest that large trees may be vulnerable to changing climate, potentially leading to declining forest biomass storage. Here we determine the importance of large trees for tropical forest biomass storage and explore which intrinsic (species trait) and extrinsic (environment) variables are associated with the density of large trees and forest biomass at continental and pan-tropical scales. Location: Pan-tropical. Methods: Aboveground biomass (AGB) was calculated for 120 intact lowland moist forest locations. Linear regression was used to calculate variation in AGB explained by the density of large trees. Akaike information criterion weights (AICc-wi) were used to calculate averaged correlation coefficients for all possible multiple regression models between AGB/density of large trees and environmental and species trait variables correcting for spatial autocorrelation. Results: Density of large trees explained c. 70% of the variation in pan-tropical AGB and was also responsible for significantly lower AGB in Neotropical [287.8 (mean)±105.0 (SD) Mg ha-1] versus Palaeotropical forests (Africa 418.3±91.8 Mg ha-1; Asia 393.3±109.3 Mg ha-1). Pan-tropical variation in density of large trees and AGB was associated with soil coarseness (negative), soil fertility (positive), community wood density (positive) and dominance of wind dispersed species (positive), temperature in the coldest month (negative), temperature in the warmest month (negative) and rainfall in the wettest month (positive), but results were not always consistent among continents. Main conclusions: Density of large trees and AGB were significantly associated with climatic variables, indicating that climate change will affect tropical forest biomass storage. Species trait composition will interact with these future biomass changes as they are also affected by a warmer climate. Given the importance of large trees for variation in AGB across the tropics, and their sensitivity to climate change, we emphasize the need for in-depth analyses of the community dynamics of large trees. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Struebig M.J.,University of Kent |
Struebig M.J.,Queen Mary, University of London |
Turner A.,University of Kent |
Turner A.,University of East Anglia |
And 6 more authors.
Advances in Ecological Research | Year: 2013
There is substantial variation in the reported effects of logging on tropical forest fauna. In addition to inherent variation in disturbance sensitivity among taxa, another contributing factor is that most studies use comparative analyses of unlogged versus logged forests, which cannot fully account for heterogeneity in disturbance as well as underlying environmental gradients. To better understand how logging affects biodiversity, we examined changes in bat assemblages across a disturbance gradient ranging from old growth to forest logged several times. In one of the first evaluations of repeatedly logged forest, we use both comparative and gradient analyses to reveal substantial signals in assemblage change in response to habitat alteration. Despite multiple rounds of extraction in the most degraded forest, neither approach revealed a definitive effect of logging on site-based richness. However, each approach generated insight into assemblage compositional responses to forest degradation. Structural differences were evident between old-growth and repeatedly logged forest, and depauperate assemblages characterised degraded sites with low, open canopy. Ordinations identified species that best contributed to the signal of assemblage change, and also key associated forest-structure variables. Models of trap-based abundance confirmed not only the importance of forest height in determining assemblage change but also the role of tree-cavity availability in supporting forest specialists, indicating that efforts to supplement this resource could aid restoration. While highlighting the ecological importance of unlogged stands, we show that heavily degraded forests-even those that have been repeatedly logged-still hold some potential value for tropical biota and could have a role in conservation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Yaap B.,Daemeter Consulting |
Struebig M.J.,Queen Mary, University of London |
Struebig M.J.,University of Brunei Darussalam |
Paoli G.,Daemeter Consulting |
Koh L.P.,ETH Zurich
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources | Year: 2010
Impacts of oil palm plantation agriculture on biodiversity have proven severe, leading to increased human-wildlife conflict, homogenization of structurally and species diverse ecosystems, and destruction of habitat for globally threatened species. Growing international demand is likely to drive further expansion of this strategic commodity in producer countries. In response, a diverse set of tools and approaches with significant potential to mitigate future impacts have been developed and are being widely applied throughout Southeast Asia, the global centre of palm oil production. This paper aims to profile these mitigation tools, beginning first with a brief review of the documented biodiversity impacts of oil palm, followed by a description of conceptual frameworks for mitigation, and a critique of five emerging mitigation tools: (1) the High Conservation Value (HCV) approach, (2) land-use advocacy, (3) carbon offsets (4), biodiversity banking and (5) enhanced regulation and enforcement. A feature shared by all is the essential role played by civil society in the development and successful implementation of these tools. We conclude by highlighting further research needs and/or activist efforts most likely to yield lasting positive impacts to redirect the location, size and shape of the oil palm 'biodiversity footprint'. © CAB International 2009 (Online ISSN 1749-8848).
Gaveau D.L.A.,Stanford University |
Curran L.M.,Stanford University |
Paoli G.D.,Daemeter Consulting |
Carlson K.M.,Stanford University |
And 5 more authors.
Conservation Letters | Year: 2012
Several studies suggest that protected areas conserve forests because deforestation rates are lower inside than outside protected area boundaries. Such benefits may be overestimated when deforestation rates within protected areas are contrasted with rates in lands where forest conversion is sanctioned. Here, we reexamine protected area performance by disentangling the effects of land use regulations surrounding the 110,000 km2 protected area network in Sumatra, Indonesia. We compared 1990-2000 deforestation rates across: (1) protected areas; (2) unprotected areas sanctioned for conversion; and (3) unprotected production areas where commercial logging is permitted but conversion is not. Deforestation rates were lower in protected areas than in conversion areas (Mean: -19.8%; 95% C.I.: -29.7--10.0%; P < 0.001), but did not differ from production areas (Mean: -3.3%; 95% C.I.: -9.6-2.6%; P= 0.273). The measured protection impact of Sumatran protected areas differs with land use regulations governing unprotected lands used for comparisons. If these regulations are not considered, protected areas will appear increasingly effective as larger unprotected forested areas are sanctioned for conversion and deforested. In the 1990s, production areas were as effective as protected areas at reducing deforestation. We discuss implications of these findings for carbon conservation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Amin S.,University of Mataram |
Suana I.W.,University of Mataram |
Iqbal M.,Daemeter Consulting
Australian Field Ornithology | Year: 2015
The Green Pygmy-goose Nettapus pulchellus is a rare visitor from Australia to eastern Indonesia. On 31 July 2014, a Green Pygmy-goose was recorded at Lake Taliwang, Sumbawa, Indonesia. This is the first record for Sumbawa, and possibly the westernmost record for this species.
Venter O.,University of Queensland |
Venter O.,James Cook University |
Possingham H.P.,University of Queensland |
Hovani L.,The Nature Conservancy |
And 5 more authors.
Conservation Letters | Year: 2013
This article describes the first application of systematic conservation planning for prioritizing REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) strategies and agricultural expansion. For a REDD+ program in Indonesian Borneo, we find that the most cost-effective way to reduce forest-based emissions by 25% is to better manage protected areas and logging concessions. A more ambitious emissions reduction target would require constraining agricultural expansion and logging, which incurs opportunity costs. We discover, however, that these impacts can be mitigated by relocating oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) agricultural leases to areas that store, on average, 130 tons less carbon per hectare and are 8% more productive for oil palm. This reduces the costs of meeting REDD+ targets, avoids conflict with agriculture, and has the unanticipated effect of minimizing impacts on logging. Our approach presents a transparent and defensible method for prioritizing REDD+ locations and strategies in a way that minimizes development trade-offs and promotes implementation success. ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.