Wyffels J.T.,Daemen College
Advances in skin & wound care | Year: 2011
: To describe the temporal relationship between the quantity of granulation tissue in a chronic pressure ulcer (PrU) and its clinical outcome. : Study participants were seen on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. On each visit, the wounds were digitally photographed with a 3-cm calibration target. Images were analyzed using VeV MD (version 1.1.14; VERG Inc, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada) and Adobe Photoshop CS3 Extended (version 10.0.1; Adobe Systems Inc, San Jose, California). Granulation tissue was selected from calibrated digital images by 1 of 2 methods: manual selection and automated selection. Granulation tissue area was expressed as a percentage of total wound area. : Academic research laboratory. : Thirty-one chronic PrUs were observed in 27 subjects. : Quantitative measure of granulation tissue area. : There was no relationship between the amount of granulation tissue expressed as a percentage of the total PrU area and wound outcome. : This study is the first to both quantitatively measure the amount of granulation tissue in a chronic PrU and attempt to correlate it to wound outcome. Although counterintuitive, the amount of granulation tissue was not predictive of outcome, and no temporal trends could be described.
Smith C.A.,Northern Arizona University |
Chimera N.J.,Daemen College |
Wright N.J.,Northern Arizona University |
Warren M.,Northern Arizona University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2013
The purpose of this study was to investigate interrater and intrarater reliability of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) with real-time administration with raters of different educational background and experience. The FMS was assessed with real-time administration in healthy injury-free men and women and included a certified FMS rater for comparison with other raters. A relatively new tool, the FMS, was developed to screen 7 individual movement patterns to classify subjects' injury risk. Previous reliability studies have been published with only one investigating intrarater reliability. These studies had limitations in study design and clinical applicability such as the use of only video to rate or the use of raters without comparison to a certified FMS rater. Raters (n = 4) with varying degrees of FMS experience and educational levels underwent a 2-hour FMS training session. Subjects (n = 19) were rated during 2 sessions, 1 week apart, using standard FMS protocol and equipment. Interrater reliability was good for session 1 (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.89) and for session 2 (ICC = 0.87). The individual FMS movements showed hurdle step as the least reliable (ICC = 0.30 for session 1 and 0.35 for session 2), whereas the most reliable was shoulder mobility (ICC = 0.98 for session 1 and 0.96 for session 2). Intrarater reliability was good for all raters (ICC = 0.81-0.91), with similar ICC regardless of education or previous experience with FMS. The results showed that the FMS could be consistently scored by people with varying degrees of experience with the FMS after a 2-hour training session. Intrarater reliability was not increased with FMS certification. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association.
Illustrating ontogenetic change in the dentition of the Nile monitor lizard, Varanus niloticus: A case study in the application of geometric morphometric methods for the quantification of shape-size heterodonty
D'Amore D.C.,Daemen College
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2015
Many recent attempts have been made to quantify heterodonty in non-mammalian vertebrates, but the majority of these are limited to Euclidian measurements. One taxon frequently investigated is Varanus niloticus, the Nile monitor. Juveniles possess elongate, pointed teeth (caniniform) along the entirety of the dental arcade, whereas adults develop large, bulbous distal teeth (molariform). The purpose of this study was to present a geometric morphometric method to quantify V. niloticus heterodonty through ontogeny that may be applied to other non-mammalian taxa. Data were collected from the entire tooth row of 19 dry skull specimens. A semilandmark analysis was conducted on the outline of the photographed teeth, and size and shape were derived. Width was also measured with calipers. From these measures, sample ranges and allometric functions were created using multivariate statistical analyses for each tooth position separately, as well as overall measures of heterodonty for each specimen based on morphological disparity. The results confirm and expand upon previous studies, showing measurable shape-size heterodonty in the species with significant differences at each tooth position. Tooth size increases with body size at most positions, and the allometric coefficient increases at more distal positions. Width shows a dramatic increase at the distal positions with ontogeny, often displaying pronounced positive allometry. Dental shape varied in two noticeable ways, with the first composing the vast majority of shape variance: (i) caniniformy vs. molariformy and (ii) mesially leaning, 'rounded' apices vs. distally leaning, 'pointed' apices. The latter was twice as influential in the mandible, a consequence of host bone shape. Mesial teeth show no significant shape change with growth, whereas distal teeth change significantly due primarily to an increase in molariformy. Overall, heterodonty increases with body size concerning both tooth size and shape, but shape heterodonty changes in the mandible are much less pronounced. Although it is unclear to what degree V. niloticus specializes in hard prey items (durophagy), previous studies of varanid feeding behavior, along with research on analogous durophagous vertebrates, indicate a division of labor along the tooth row in adults, due to a possible transition to at least a partial durophagous niche. The geometric morphometric method proposed here, although not without its own limitations, may be ideal for use with a number of dental morphotypes in the future. © 2015 Anatomical Society.
Podraza J.T.,State University of New York at Buffalo |
Podraza J.T.,Daemen College |
White S.C.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Knee | Year: 2010
Investigating landing kinetics and neuromuscular control strategies during rapid deceleration movements is a prerequisite to understanding the non-contact mechanism of ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of knee flexion angle on ground reaction forces, net knee joint moments, muscle co-contraction and lower extremity muscles during an impact-like, deceleration task. Ground reaction forces and knee joint moments were determined from video and force plate records of 10 healthy male subjects performing rapid deceleration single leg landings from a 10.5. cm height with different degrees of knee flexion at landing. Muscle co-contraction was based on muscle moments calculated from an EMG-to-moment processing model. Ground reaction forces and co-contraction indices decreased while knee extensor moments increased significantly with increased degrees of knee flexion at landing (all p< 0.005). Higher ground reaction forces when landing in an extended knee position suggests they are a contributing factor in non-contact ACL injuries. Increased knee extensor moments and less co-contraction with flexed knee landings suggest that quadriceps overload may not be the primary cause of non-contact ACL injuries. The results bring into question the counterbalancing role of the hamstrings during dynamic movements. The soleus may be a valuable synergist stabilizing the tibia against anterior translation at landing. Movement strategies that lessen the propagation of reaction forces up the kinetic chain may help prevent non-contact ACL injuries. The relative interaction of all involved thigh and lower leg muscles, not just the quadriceps and hamstrings should be considered when interpreting non-contact ACL injury mechanisms. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Chimera N.J.,Daemen College |
Smith C.A.,Proactive Physical Therapy |
Warren M.,Northern Arizona University
Journal of Athletic Training | Year: 2015
Context: Research is limited regarding the effects of injury or surgery history and sex on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Y Balance Test (YBT). Objective: To determine if injury or surgery history or sex affected results on the FMS and YBT. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic training facilities. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 200 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female (n = 92; age = 20.0 ± 1.4 years, body mass index = 22.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2) and male (n = 108; age = 20.0 ± 1.5 years, body mass index = 27.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2) athletes were screened; 170 completed the FMS, and 190 completed the YBT. Intervention(s): A self-reported questionnaire identified injury or surgery history and sex. The FMS assessed movement during the patterns of deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, impingement-clearing test, straight-leg raise, trunk stability push-up, press-up clearing test, rotary stability, and posterior-rocking clearing test. The YBT assessed balance while participants reached in anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. Main Outcome Measure(s): The FMS composite score (CS; range, 0-21) and movement pattern score (range, 0-3), the YBT CS (% lower extremity length), and YBT anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral asymmetry (difference between limbs in centimeters). Independent-samples t tests established differences in mean FMS CS, YBT CS, and YBT asymmetry. The Mann-Whitney U test identified differences in FMS movement patterns. Results: We found lower overall FMS CSs for the following injuries or surgeries: hip (injured = 12.7 ± 3.1, uninjured = 14.4 ± 2.3; P = .005), elbow (injured = 12.1 ± 2.8, uninjured = 14.3 ±2.4; P = .02), and hand (injured = 12.3 ± 2.9, uninjured = 14.3 ±2.3; P = .006) injuries and shoulder surgery (surgery = 12.0 ±1.0, no surgery = 14.3 ± 2.4; P < .001). We observed worse FMS movement pattern performance for knee surgery (rotary stability: P = .03), hip injury (deep squat and hurdle: P < .042 for both), hip surgery (hurdle and lunge: P < .01 for both), shoulder injury (shoulder and hand injury: P < .02 for both), and shoulder surgery (shoulder: P < .02). We found better FMS movement pattern performance for trunk/back injury (deep squat: P = .02) and ankle injury (lunge: P = .01). Female athletes performed worse in FMS movement patterns for trunk (P < .001) and rotary (P = .01) stability but better in the lunge (P = .008), shoulder mobility (P < .001), and straight-leg raise (P < .001). Anterior asymmetry was greater for male athletes (P = .02). Conclusions: Injury history and sex affected FMS and YBT performance. Researchers should consider adjusting for confounders. © by the National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc.