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Yoo K.-Y.,The Seoul Institute | Yi S.,Daejeon Development Institute
Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management | Year: 2014

For strategic planning of municipal solid waste management, the goals and action plans should be predicted and adopted after proper evaluations of the previous achievements. Thus, this long-term plans for past and future 10 years were evaluated and developed by completing the procedures for current and future status analysis, the evaluation of the 2nd Seoul Solid Waste Management Plan (SWMP), the development of the 3rd Seoul SWMP, expert forum, public hearing, and "Prior Environmental Review" of Korea Ministry of Environment. The greatest achievements during the 2nd Seoul SWMP (2002-2011) were good performances of waste treatment methods and their rates and greenhouse gas (GHG) saving effects. The 3rd Seoul SWMP induces three policy stances and six directions of waste management from 2012 to 2021 in Seoul. The project section in this plan is divided into six policy stages and eighteen action plants in whole. The goals of the 3rd plan are direct landfill 5.4 % and resource recovery 72 % by 2021. Optimization index analysis shows the increases of the index from 62.2 % in 2009 to 79.2 % in 2021. As well as optimization index analysis, further analysis results for public budget, GHG emissions, and job creation supports that the 3rd Seoul SWMP has been successfully planned. These findings suggest several courses of action for evaluation and development of long-term solid waste management plan in various countries. © 2014 Springer Japan.


Choung J.-Y.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Hwang H.-R.,Daejeon Development Institute
Scientometrics | Year: 2013

The recent trend of rapid growth in the scientific and engineering activities in East Asian Newly Industrializing Economies (NIEs) resulted in a change in the structure of world knowledge production. In South Korea, particularly, not only the numbers of publications have increased, but there is a noticeable change in the composition of scientific and engineering activities. This paper notes the most of the research on the knowledge production of advanced countries, along with a handful of studies about the knowledge production of latecomers. Recent changes in the patterns of knowledge production in latecomer countries provoke the deeper understanding about the underlying mechanisms of ongoing change. Therefore, this paper explores the patterns of knowledge production activities in latecomers by analyzing scientific and engineering capabilities using empirical evidence from Korea. The results suggest that the patterns of accumulation of knowledge production in Korea gradually evolved from engineering to scientific activities. Important policy implications can be drawn from the findings for supporting scientific and engineering research activity in the latecomers in general and NIEs in particular. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Lee E.-J.,Daejeon Development Institute | Rhim S.-J.,Chung - Ang University
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2012

Researchers examined difference in the abundance of mammals in post-fire silvicultural management stands within a pine forest in Samcheok, Gangwon province, South Korea, from 2008-2010. Researchers recorded the tracks of 12 mammal species, amur hedgehogs (Erinaceus amurensis), Japanese moles (Mogera wogura), raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), Siberian weasels (Mustela sibirica) European badgers (Meles meles), Bengal cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), wild boars (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Caproelus pygargus), water deer (Hydropotes inermis), Korean hares (Lepus coreanus), red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) and Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus). There were significant differences in the number of species and tracks linked to mammals among unburned, post-burned Japanese red pine planted and post-burned untreated stands. Of the 12 mammal species analyzed, six species were related to habitat variables in a stepwise approach with repeated measures. Long-term ecological research is needed to understand post-fire pine forest management. © Medwell Journals, 2012.


Yi S.,Daejeon Development Institute | Inoue M.,University of Tokyo
Journal of Sustainable Development | Year: 2014

Emerging concern over social implications of large-scale adoption is a motivation to require certification of the sustainable origins of biofuels. In terms of the feasibility of biofuel supply in Japan, this study examines the behavioral intentions of sustainable activities by using social criteria of international levels in the context of bioethanol feedstock production in Khon Kaen, Thailand. The models adapted from the theory of planned behavior were tested by using the structural equation model. The main results are as follows: (1) In terms of the perception of working rights and conditions, which was largely influenced by the "awareness: real conditions" and "awareness: real conditions for the participants' personal lives", "personal norm" indicated the highest score. (2) "Education" had the greatest impact on solutions for personal welfare and well-being with respect to sustainable activities. (3) The scores of the importance for social welfare and well-being included six categories: reasonable compensation, reasonable working hours, healthcare and safety, fair treatment of all workers, good communication, and education with the similar ranges of scores and regression weights. (4) The "attitude toward the behavior" was the most influential predictor of "behavioral intention". Results of this investigation give an implication to design a social criteria framework in agriculture activities such as the ethanol feedstock production. © 2014 by the author(s).


Lee J.,Daejeon Development Institute | Choi K.,Ajou University | Leem Y.,Hanbat National University
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation | Year: 2016

In order to improve the effectiveness of transit-oriented development (TOD), the integration of public transportation and bikes has been regarded as a good alternative because the catchment area of a station, that is, the spatial extent of TOD, can be increased. This paper suggests the concept of bicycle-based TOD (B-TOD) and estimates the spatial extent, considering the catchment area. For this, a trip survey was conducted among bicycle users who used bicycle and public transportation in Seoul metropolitan and Daejeon metropolitan areas in Korea. Regression and cumulative distribution models were used to estimate the spatial extent of B-TOD. The results show that the estimated access distances were 1.96 km and 2.13 km for origin (home)-to-station and station-to-work trips, respectively, and they can play a yardstick role in the TOD planning practices in Korea. In such cases, the catchment areas of B-TOD cover 73.7% and 93.6% of the whole area of Seoul, whereas conventional walking-only TOD can cover only 29.9% of the same. This implies that B-TOD can help to solve one of the key inherent weaknesses of the conventional TOD. Some limitations and recommendations for future research are also discussed. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Lee C.,University of Seoul | Lee J.-B.,Daejeon Development Institute | Kim M.,University of Seoul
Journal of Advanced Transportation | Year: 2011

Density is the most important congestion indicator among fundamental traffic flow variables-flow, speed, and density. Measuring density by aerial monitoring, although accurate, cannot be widely used because of its cost and dependency on weather. The conventional method, estimating density based on the relationship between traffic flow and speed as measured by a point detector, does not yield an accurate density value, because the flow is not homogeneous. A new and advanced density measurement method, which is based on the in-out counting method, is proposed. This method uses average density instead of instantaneous density. By using two point detectors, this method can capture considerable variation in density and is accurate for single and multilane freeway segments. Establishing the number of floating vehicles necessary to obtain a fair approximation of the true density is for future research. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Yoo K.-Y.,The Seoul Institute | Yi S.,Daejeon Development Institute
Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management | Year: 2015

For strategic planning of municipal solid waste management, the goals and action plans should be predicted and adopted after proper evaluations of the previous achievements. Thus, this long-term plans for past and future 10 years were evaluated and developed by completing the procedures for current and future status analysis, the evaluation of the 2nd Seoul Solid Waste Management Plan (SWMP), the development of the 3rd Seoul SWMP, expert forum, public hearing, and “Prior Environmental Review” of Korea Ministry of Environment. The greatest achievements during the 2nd Seoul SWMP (2002–2011) were good performances of waste treatment methods and their rates and greenhouse gas (GHG) saving effects. The 3rd Seoul SWMP induces three policy stances and six directions of waste management from 2012 to 2021 in Seoul. The project section in this plan is divided into six policy stages and eighteen action plants in whole. The goals of the 3rd plan are direct landfill 5.4 % and resource recovery 72 % by 2021. Optimization index analysis shows the increases of the index from 62.2 % in 2009 to 79.2 % in 2021. As well as optimization index analysis, further analysis results for public budget, GHG emissions, and job creation supports that the 3rd Seoul SWMP has been successfully planned. These findings suggest several courses of action for evaluation and development of long-term solid waste management plan in various countries. © 2014, Springer Japan.


Kim H.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Lee Y.-S.,Korea University | Hwang H.-R.,Daejeon Development Institute
Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy | Year: 2014

This study examines how the Daedeok Science and Technology (S&T) Park, built as a national R&D center, has evolved over time from the perspective of a complex adaptive system. We argue that the Daedeok S&T Park—a planned park exhibiting path-dependent, self-reinforcing trajectories led by the government—has gradually evolved over time, undergoing some tension between nationalizing and regionalizing forces instead of encountering an imminent and radical transformation through the replication of a new model each time. The state’s role is highlighted as a creator that ironically leads to the process of the planned park’s evolution toward a more cluster-based park by strengthening regional actors’ capabilities and changing the structure of governance. The study contributes to the literature on S&T parks by providing an in-depth analysis of an S&T park from an evolutionary perspective, and not from a typical static evaluation, and is based on archival analyses and case studies of ten firms as well as on in-depth interviews with key actors. © 2014 Pion and its Licensors.


Yi S.,Daejeon Development Institute | Kurisu K.H.,University of Tokyo | Hanaki K.,University of Tokyo
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2011

Purpose: Few studies have examined differing interpretations of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) results between midpoints and endpoints for the same systems. This paper focuses on the LCIA of municipal solid waste (MSW) systems by taking both the midpoint and endpoint approaches and uses LIME (Life Cycle Impact Assessment Method based on Endpoint Modeling, version 2006). With respect to global and site-dependent factors, environmental impact categories were divided into global, regional, and local scales. Results are shown as net emissions consisting of system emissions and avoided emissions. Materials and methods: This study is divided into five segments. The first segment develops the LCIA framework and four MSW scenarios based on the current MSW composition and systems of Seoul, considering adaptable results from the hierarchy MSW systems. In addition, two systems are considered: main MSW systems and optional systems. Several "what if" scenarios are discussed, including various compositions and classifications of MSW. In the second segment, life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis is applied to define various inputs and outputs to and from MSW systems, including air (23 categories), water (28 categories) and land (waste) emissions, resource consumption, land use, recovered material, compost, landfill gas, biogas, and heat energy. The third segment, taking the midpoint approach, investigates the nine environmental impacts of the system and avoided emissions. In the fourth segment, this study, taking the endpoint approach, evaluates the damages, dividing the four safeguard subjects affected by 11 environmental impact categories of the system and avoided emissions. In these third and fourth segments, LCIA is applied to analyze various end-of-life scenarios for same MSW materials. The final segment defines the differences from the results in accordance with the two previous life cycle assessment methodologies (the LCIA and interpretations with respect to midpoints and endpoints). Results and discussion: With the respect to midpoints, Scenario 1 (S1) using 100% landfills (L) is the worst performer in terms of global (global warming and resource consumption), regional (acidification, human toxicity, and ecotoxicity), and local (waste: landfill volume) impacts. In terms of all impacts except global warming and waste, Scenario 2 (S2) using 64.2% L and 35.8% material recycling (MR) was found to be the most effective system. With respect to global-scale endpoints, S1 was the worst performer in terms of human health and social assets, whereas the other scenarios with MR were poor and bad performers in terms of biodiversity and primary production. With respect to regional- and local-scale endpoints, S1 was the worst performer in terms of human health, biodiversity, and primary production, whereas Scenario 4 (S4) using 4.2% L (only incombustibles), 35.8% MR, 28.5% biological treatment (BT), and 31.5% incineration (I) was the worst performer in terms of social assets. S4 was the best performer in terms of global-scale endpoints, whereas S2 and Scenario 3 (S3, using 35.7% L, 35.8% MR, and 28.5% BT) were the best on regional- and local-scale endpoints, respectively. With respect to the monetization analysis, which considered net emissions and integrated all endpoints, S3 was found to be "the most effective system," indicating US $31.6 savings per ton-waste. Conclusions: The results of this study illustrate the differences in the LCIA outcomes and interpretations with respect to the midpoint and endpoint approaches. In addition, it would be possible to interpret the effect of each indicator on safeguard subjects by integrating separate midpoints. The LCIA results of each endpoint for the scenarios were generally consistent with those of each midpoint. However, the results changed dramatically when the main contributor was a new category not included in midpoint categories. The key advantage with respect to grouping impact categories in the midpoint and endpoint approaches can be described as "the simplification of midpoints and the segmentation of endpoints." Recommendations and perspectives: This research raises many questions that warrant further research. This method does not provide an uncertainty evaluation of input data at the inventory level; it addresses only the main contributor for each impact category to four endpoints. In addition, it would be beneficial to investigate the suitability of midpoints and endpoints for different stakeholders with a low or high level of environmental expertise by comparing previous studies. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Park S.,Chosun University | Lee J.-B.,Daejeon Development Institute | Lee C.,Seoul National University
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2016

This paper presents a review of the state-of-the-art automobile emissions models that have been utilized in North America and Europe. The emissions models are classified into two categories: models for emissions inventory and instantaneous emissions models. Each model is explained in some detail, covering revisions and characteristics such as emissions modeling, user input, emissions processes, vehicle categories, pollutants, key variables, and so on. Research trends on the application of the automobile emissions models are also presented. The most robust research area was found to be the assessment of the impacts of various factors, schemes, and technologies affecting vehicle emissions. The second research focus was the enhancement of the applicability of the models to improve the accuracy and quality of emissions estimations. The final area of research was the improvement of energy efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the use of information and communication technologies. There have been a variety of applications utilizing the emissions models. Their contributions to a reduction in vehicle emissions and fuel consumption appear to be very significant. © 2016, Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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