Jeon W.-J.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Kim K.-M.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Kim E.-J.,Kyungpook National University |
Jang W.-G.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Jang W.-G.,Korea Institute of Industrial Technology
Life Sciences | Year: 2017
Aims Costunolide is a sesquiterpene lactones used in many herbal medicines, with well-established anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant functions modulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways, and which promotes the expression of anti-oxidant genes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether costunolide is involved in osteoblast differentiation and, determine the mechanisms of differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells. Main methods The cytotoxicity of costunolide was identified using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of osteogenic genes were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Alkaline phosphate (ALP) staining and Alizarin red S (ARS) staining were performed to evaluate ALP activity and matrix mineralization. Transcriptional activity was detected using a luciferase reporter assay. Key findings In this study, we determined that costunolide increased the expression of distal-less homeobox 5 (Dlx5), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP, and osteocalcin (OC) in C3H10T 1/2 cells. Furthermore, costunolide increased ALP activity and matrix mineralization. Interestingly, costunolide increased ER stress by Bip, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). However, it did not exert effects on expression of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). ATF4 activation has a protective role in oxidative stress, and its transcription induces anti-oxidant genes in cells. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a major anti-oxidant enzyme, and is regulated by ATF4. We showed that costunolide treatment increased HO-1 expression. Furthermore, the HO-1 inhibitor, Sn(IV) Protoporphyrin IX dichloride (SnPP) was blocked costunolide-induced Runx2 expression. Significance Our results revealed that costunolide-induced osteoblast differentiation is regulated by ATF4-dependent HO-1 expression. © 2017
Ryu H.S.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Shin R.Y.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Lee J.H.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk
Journal of Ecology and Environment | Year: 2016
Background: The purpose of this study is to describe the morphological characteristics of the Aphanizomenon spp. and related species from the natural samples collected in the Nakdong River of South Korea. Results: Morphological characteristics in the four species classified into the genera Aphanizomenon Morren ex Bornet et Flahault 1888 and Cuspidothrix Rajaniemi et al. 2005 were observed by light microscopy. The following four taxa were identified: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Ralfs ex Bornet et Flahault, Aphanizomenon klebahnii Elenkin ex Pechar, Aphanizomenon skujae Komárková-Legnerová et Cronberg, and Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi (Usačev) Rajaniemi et al. Aph. flos-aquae and Aph. klebahnii always formed in fascicles; the others only occurred in solitary. Aph. flos-aquae was similar to Aph. klebahnii, whereas these species differed from each other by the size and shape of fascicles, which was macroscopic in Aph. flos-aquae and microscopic in the Aph. klebahnii. One of their characteristics was that trichomes are easily disintegrating during microscopic examination. C. issatschenkoi could be clearly distinguished from other species by hair-shaped terminal cell. Its terminal cell was almost hyaline and markedly pointed. Young populations of the species without heterocytes run a risk of a misidentification. Aph. skujae was characterized by akinete. Morphological variability of akinetes from natural samples collected in the Nakdong River was rather smaller than those reported by previous study. Conclusions: C. issatschenkoi are described for the first time in the Nakdong River. In addition, Aph. klebahnii and Aph. skujae are new to South Korea. © The Author(s). 2017.
Yeon J.-Y.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Min S.-H.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Park H.-J.,Kyungpook National University |
Kim J.-W.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2015
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that undergo constant fusion/fission as well as activities orchestrated by large dynamin-related GTPases. These dynamic mitochondrial processes influence mitochondrial morphology, size and function. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mitochondrial fission inhibitor, mdivi-1, on developmental competence and mitochondrial function of porcine embryos and primary cells. Presumptive porcine embryos were cultured in PZM-3 medium supplemented with mdivi-1 (0, 10 and 50 μM) for 6 days. Porcine fibroblast cells were cultured in growth medium with mdivi-1 (0 and 50 μM) for 2 days. Our results showed that the rate of blastocyst production and cell growth in the mdivi-1 (50 μM) treated group was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in the mdivi-1 (50 μM) treated group was increased relative to the control group (P < 0.05). Subsequent evaluation revealed that the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the apoptotic index were increased by mdivi-1 (50 μM) treatment (P < 0.05). Finally, the expression of mitochondrial fission-related protein (Drp 1) was lower in the embryos and cells in the mdivi-1-treated group than the control group. Taken together, these results indicate that mdivi-1 treatment may inhibit developmental competence and mitochondrial function in porcine embryos and primary cells. Key words: Embryos, Fibroblast cells, Mdivi-1, Mitochondria, Pig. © 2015 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.
Kim J.-W.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Park H.-J.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Chae S.-K.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Ahn J.-H.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2016
Gangliosides are key lipid molecules required for the regulation of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell signaling, including signaling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has long been considered a potential regulator of meiotic and cytoplasmic maturation in mammalian oocytes. However, there is no report on the direct effect of ganglioside GD1a in porcine oocyte maturation. In this study, we first investigated a functional link between GD1a and meiotic maturation during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine embryos. Moreover, we confirmed the effect of exogenous GD1a treatment on blastocyst development, quality, and fertilization rate in early embryonic development. First, we observed that the protein level of ST3GAL2, a GD1a synthesizing enzyme, significantly increased (P < 0.01) in cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) during IVM progress. The proportion of arrested germinal vesicles (GV) increased in oocytes treated with EGF+GD1a (41.6 ± 1.5%) at the IVM I stage. Upon completion of meiotic maturation, the proportion of metaphase II (M II) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the EGF+GD1a (89.9 ± 3.6%) treated group. After IVF, the percentage of penetrated oocytes was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the EGF+GD1a (89.1 ± 2.3%) treated group than in the control group. Furthermore, exogenous GD1a treatment improved the developmental competence and quality of blastocysts during preimplantation embryo development stage. These results suggest that ganglioside GD1a may play an important role in IVM mechanisms of porcine maturation capacity. Furthermore, our findings will be helpful for better promoting the embryo development and blastocyst quality in pigs. © 2016 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.
Min H.-Y.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Kim K.-M.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Wee G.,RO|Innovation |
Kim E.-J.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Jang W.-G.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk
Life Sciences | Year: 2016
Aims Mammalian circadian rhythms regulate many metabolic processes. Recent studies suggest that brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (BMAL1), an important component of mammalian circadian rhythm, is associated with insulin signaling. Several studies have shown that insulin is associated with bone metabolism; however, the relationship between BMAL1 and osteoblasts remains unclear. Main methods Expression of osteogenic markers and Bmal1 in MC3T3-E1 cells was measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Alizarin red S staining was performed to assess matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells. Key findings mRNA levels of osteogenic genes and Bmal1 were up-regulated in MC3T3-E1 cells upon insulin treatment. In addition, Bmal1 overexpression increased the expression of osteogenic genes including inhibitor of DNA binding (Id1), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteocalcin (OC). Interestingly, expression of Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), an important upstream factor of Id1, Runx2, and OC, was markedly increased by Bmal1. Finally, we confirmed that insulin-induced BMP2 expression was attenuated in Bmal1 knockout (KO) cells. PCR analysis and alizarin red S staining showed that insulin-mediated increases gene expression and calcium deposition were reduced in Bmal1 KO cells compared to wild-type cells. Significance Taken together, these results demonstrate that Bmal1 promotes osteoblast differentiation by regulating BMP2 expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. © 2016
Im M.-H.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk |
Ji Y.-J.,Daegu UniversityGyeongbuk
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry | Year: 2016
A processing factor (PF) has been used to define the maximum residue limits of pesticide in a variety of processed fruit products. This study summarizes PF by the stage of fruit processing based on JMPR reports from 2010 to 2014. When we compared PF of 19 pesticides in apple products during the processing of washing, drying, canning, juice, sauce, puree and pomace, PF was higher than 1 only in pomace. In the comparison of 21 pesticides during the process of grape (washing, juice, wine and raisin), PF was higher than 1 in raisin. In the comparison of 19 pesticides during the process of orange (juice, oil and marmalade), PF was higher than 1 in oil. When 27 pesticides were compared during the process of tomato (juice, puree and paste), paste showed the highest PF value except pomace. During the process of plum (washing, drying and puree) with 12 pesticides, PF was higher than 1 in drying. The correlation coefficients between physical characteristics of pesticide (fat-solubility and volatility) and PF were statistically significant in the processes of apple juice, orange juice, tomato puree and paste and strawberry jam. © The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 2016.