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Cheon J.-M.,Kyungpook National University | Kim D.-I.,Daegu Technopark Oriental Medicine Industry Support Center | Kim K.-S.,Kyungpook National University
Journal of Ginseng Research

Background: The biological actions of various ginseng extracts have been studied for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of fermented Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) on metabolic syndrome. The present study evaluated the antiobesity and antidiabetic effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG) on old-aged, obese, leptin-deficient (B6.V-Lepob, “ob/ob”) mice. Methods: The animals were divided into three groups and given water containing 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0% FRG for 16 wk. The effect of FRG on ob/ob mice was determined by measuring changes in body weight, levels of blood glucose, serum contents of triglycerides, total cholesterol and free fatty acids, messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of key factors associated with insulin action, such as insulin receptor (IR), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), glucose transporter 1 and 4 (GLUT1 and GLUT4), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver and in muscle, and histology of the liver and pancreas. Results: FRG-treated mice had decreased body weight and blood glucose levels compared with control ob/ob mice. However, anti-obesity effect of FRG was not evident rather than hypoglycemic effect in old aged ob/ob mice. The hyperlipidemia in control group was attenuated in FRG-treated ob/ob mice. The mRNA expressions of IR, LPL, GLUT1, GLUT4, PPAR-γ, and PEPCK in the liver and in muscle were increased in the FRG-treated groups compared with the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that FRG may play a vital role in improving insulin sensitivity relative to reducing body weight in old-aged ob/ob mice. © 2015, The Korean Society of Ginseng, Published by Elsevier. All rights reserved. Source

Kim D.,Daegu Technopark Oriental Medicine Industry Support Center | Mollah M.L.,University Putra Malaysia | Kim K.,Kyungpook National University
Anticancer Research

Background/Aim: (-)-Epicatechin is a major constituent of Bulnesia sarmienti, which is known to possess anticancer properties. Here we report that (-)-epicatechin isolated from B. Sarmienti inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of SW480 human colon cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Cells were treated with different concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 100 μmol/ml) of (-)-epicatechin. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 40,6-diamidine-20-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining, colony-forming assay, DNA fragmentation analysis, reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR), annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) staining, and immunoblot analyses were then carried out. Results: (-)-Epicatechin was found to have cytotoxic activity, and cells treated with this compound had fragmented nuclei, fragmented DNA, and underwent apoptosis. mRNA and protein expression levels of BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) and p53 were up-regulated and those of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) were down-regulated, while p21 mRNA levels were significantly increased in cells treated with (-)-epicatechin in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: (-)-Epicatechin from B. Sarmienti inhibited colon cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis. Source

Hwang J.,Daegu Technopark Oriental Medicine Industry Support Center | Yun J.-K.,Daegu Technopark Oriental Medicine Industry Support Center | Kim S.-K.,DaeWon GSI Co. | Lee S.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Han K.-H.,Daegu Technopark Oriental Medicine Industry Support Center
Korean Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

Chaff-vinegar is known for having a variety of useful purposes in the fields of health and lifestyles. In a previous study we isolated and identified the active fractions of the polyphenol compound 7 species as a potential biomaterial for cosmeceuticals. To further test for its potential use as a functional material, we carried out an MTT assay, collagenase inhibition assay, elastase inhibition assay, tyrosinase inhibition assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, SOD-like activity assay and a xanthine oxidase inhibition assay. Chaff-vinegar exhibited potent collagenase and elastase inhibitory activities in a concentration dependent manner, indicating that the agent has the potential to alleviate the skin wrinkling process. Chaff-vinegar also showed 80% tyrosinase inhibition at a concentration of 100 μL/mL. DPPH radical scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition, and SOD-like activity results for each activity were 80%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Taken together, the present study suggests that chaff-vinegar is a good candidate for use as an anti-wrinkling and/or whitening agent. © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology. Source

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