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Yoon S.-R.,Kyungpook National University | Lee G.-D.,Daegu Technopark Bio Industry Center | Kim H.-K.,Korea Food Research Institute | Kwon J.-H.,Kyungpook National University
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2010

Response surface methodology was used to predict the optimum conditions of explosive puffing process for ginseng. A central composite design was used to monitor the effect of moisture content and puffing pressure on dependent variables such as functional compounds (extract yield, crude saponin, acidic polysaccharide, and total phenolic content) and sensory properties. Correlation coefficients (R2) of models for crude saponin, acidic polysaccharide, and total phenolic content were 0.9176 (p<0.05), 0.9494 (p<0.05), and 0.9878 (p<0.001), respectively. Functional compounds increased with decreasing moisture content and increasing puffing pressure. Overall palatability was high at 15-20% moisture content and 98-294 kPa of puffing pressure. On the basis of superimposed contour maps for functional compounds and overall palatability of puffed ginseng, the optimum ranges of puffing conditions were 10-17% moisture content and 294-392 kPa puffing pressure. Source


Kim D.-I.,Daegu Technopark Bio Industry Center | Lee S.-H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lee S.-H.,National Academy of Agricultural Science | Hong J.-H.,Catholic University of Daegu | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition Research | Year: 2010

Eclipta prostrata has been used as a traditional medicinal plant to prevent dementia and to enhance memory in Asia. Its potential as a nootropic and as an antioxidant have been reported in mice. We hypothesized that Eclipta may affect the formation of neurotransmitters and the inhibition of oxidative stress. Charles River cesarean-derived rats (male, 180 ± 10 g) were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 mg (control), 25 mg (E25), 50 mg (E50), or 100 mg (E100) of a freeze-dried butanol fraction of E prostrata per kilogram of diet for 6 weeks. The acetylcholine level was significantly increased by 9.6% and 12.1% in the brains of E50 and E100 groups, respectively, as compared with the control group that was fed standard diet alone. The acetylcholine esterase activity was significantly increased by 13.1% and 19.7% in the brains of E50 and E100 groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Monoamine oxidase-B activity was significantly decreased by 10.5% in the brains of the E100 group, and the superoxide radical level was significantly reduced by 9.4% in the serum of the E100 group compared with the control group. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly increased by 9.6% and 11.6% in the serum of E50 and E100 groups, respectively, compared with the control group. These results clearly demonstrate the effects of E prostrata on the formation of acetylcholine in the brain and the inhibition of oxidative stress in the brain and serum of rats. These findings may have implications for preventing dementia and enhancing memory function in humans. © 2010. Source


Park J.H.,Seoul National University | Park J.H.,Daegu Technopark Bio Industry Center | Kwon J.-T.,Seoul National University | Minai-Teherani A.,Seoul National University | And 6 more authors.
Toxicological Research | Year: 2013

In the workplace, the arsenic is used in the semiconductor production and the manufacturing of pigments, glass, pesticides and fungicides. Therefore, workers may be exposed to airborne arsenic during its use in manufacturing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of particulate matters (PMs) doped with arsenic (PMs-Arsenic) using a rodent model and to compare the genotoxicity in various concentrations and to examine the role of PMs-Arsenic in the induction of signaling pathway in the lung. Mice were exposed to PMs 124.4 ± 24.5 μg/m3 (low concentration), 220.2 ± 34.5 μg/m3 (middle concentration), 426.4 ± 40.3 μg/m3 (high concentration) doped with arsenic 1.4 μg/m3 (Low concentration), 2.5 μg/m3 (middle concentration), 5.7 μg/m3 (high concentration) for 4 wks (6 h/d, 5 d/wk), respectively in the whole-body inhalation exposure chambers. To determine the level of genotoxicity, Chromosomal aberration (CA) assay in splenic lymphocytes and Supravital micronucleus (SMN) assay were performed. Then, signal pathway in the lung was analyzed. In the genotoxicity experiments, the increases of aberrant cells were concentration-dependent. Also, PMs-arsenic caused peripheral blood micronucleus frequency at high concentration. The inhalation of PMs-Arsenic increased an expression of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt: protein kinase B) and phpsphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) at high concentration group. Taken together, inhaled PMs-Arsenic caused genotoxicity and altered Akt signaling pathway in the lung. Therefore, the inhalation of PMs-Arsenic needs for a careful risk assessment in the workplace. Source


Yu M.H.,Keimyung University | Chae I.G.,Keimyung University | Choi J.H.,Korea Food Research Institute | Im H.G.,Keimyung University | And 5 more authors.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The fruit of Actinidia polygama, Mock-chun-ryo in Korea, has been used as traditional medicine for abdominal pain, rheumatic arthritis, and stroke. In a previous study, the ethanol extract of A. polygama Max. showed antiinflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 cells. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerosis effects of supercritical fluid marc extracts from A. polygama Max. Anti-inflammatory extracts were produced from supercritical fluid extraction of the silver vine under the following conditions; pressure, 1,500-4,500 psi, temperature 35-55oC and extraction time 1-2 hr. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects of the extracts, we studied nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in RAW 264.7 cells and MMP- 9 activity in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). The Marc 11 extract inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, and TNF-α by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, the marc 11 extract inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-9 activity in HASMC. These results indicate that the Marc 11 extract of A. polygama Max. has the potential for use as an anti-atherosclerosis agent. © The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology. Source


Lee E.-J.,Keimyung University | Yang S.-A.,Keimyung University | Choi H.-D.,Korea Food Research Institute | Im H.-G.,Daegu Technopark Bio Industry Center | And 2 more authors.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a well known edible plant that is traditionally used to treat various illnesses related to inflammation and oxidative stress. Steam distillated ginger oil or water extract are mainly used for related products; however, it is unclear whether these fractions contain most of the bioactive compounds or the highest efficacy. This investigated the antioxidant effects of extracts prepared by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). 6-Gingerol was the most abundant component in hexane fraction of ethanol extract from ginger. The antioxidative properties of SFE oil and Marc ethanol fractions were demonstrated using the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals scavenging assays. A clear correlation was observed between total polyphenol contents and RC 50 values in the Marc ethanol fraction. These results indicate that not only SFE oil but the marc after SFE could be good sources for the food industry. © The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology. Source

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