Daejeon, South Korea
Daejeon, South Korea

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Lee M.-R.,Chungnam National University | Yun B.-S.,Chungnam National University | Liu L.,Chungnam National University | Zhang D.-L.,Chungnam National University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2010

This study compared the effects of black, white, and red ginseng extracts (WGE, RGE, BGE, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) on learning and memory deficits associated with scopolamine treatment (SCOP, 2 mg/kg, i.p.). Tacrine (THA, 10 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a positive control. Ginseng significantly reversed SCOP-induced memory impairment in the passiveavoidance test and also reduced escape latency in training trials of the Morris water maze test. The increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity produced by SCOP was significantly inhibited by WGE and RGE (p<0.001). SCOP administration had no effect on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, but RGE and BGE significantly increased ChAT activity (p<0.05). SCOP administration increased oxidative damage in the brain. Treatment of amnesic mice with ginseng extracts decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and restored superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity to control levels. These results suggest that black ginseng enhances cognitive activity by regulation of cholinergic enzymes and antioxidant systems.


Yun B.S.,Chungnam National University | Lee M.R.,Chungnam National University | Oh C.J.,Chungnam National University | Cho J.H.,Chungnam National University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2010

Black ginseng and white ginseng were extracted with 80% ethanol and evaluated for relative ginsenoside composition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, and antioxidant properties. As analyzed by HPLC, black ginseng contained a greater proportion of ginsenoside Rg3 compared to white ginseng. White ginseng was characterized by undetectable ginsenoside Rg3 but it contained more total ginsenosides than black ginseng. Black ginseng extract exhibited higher (p<0.05) free radical-scavenging activity, as well as higher antioxidant activities than white ginseng against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl, superoxide dismutase, and xanthine oxidase, despite the fact that the total saponin content was higher in white ginseng than black ginseng. In addition, the black ginseng extract displayed greater AChE and BChE inhibitory activities. These results suggest that black ginseng has stronger effects on anti-oxidation and AChE and BChE inhibition than white ginseng. © The Korean Society of Ginseng.


Lee M.-R.,Chungnam National University | Yun B.-S.,Chungnam National University | Zhang D.-L.,Chungnam National University | Liu L.,Chungnam National University | And 7 more authors.
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

This study was performed to estimate ameliorating effect of aqueous antler extract (AAE) on memory impairments induced by scopolamine (SCOP, 2 mg/kg, i.p.). Tacrine (THA, 10 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a positive control. The passive avoidance test and Y-maze test results showed that a single AAE (200 mg/kg, p.o.) administration significantly restored memory impairment. Moreover, AAE or THA treatment significantly reduced the escape latency prolonged by SCOP during trial sessions in the Morris water maze test. In vivo study, AAE significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (p<0.001), whereas choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity (p<0.05) was enhanced. In addition, SCOP elevated oxidative damage in the brain. However, treatment with AAE to the amnesic mice induced by SCOP considerably decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level (p<0.01) and restored the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p<0.01) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (p<0.001) approaching the control values. These results suggest that AAE showed the potential cognitive-enhancing activity by regulating cholinergic marker enzyme activities and promoting the antioxidant system. © KoSFoST and Springer 2010.

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