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Saba E.,Kyungpook National University | Jeong D.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Roh S.-S.,Daegu Haany University | Kim S.-H.,Daejeon University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2016

Background: Chong-Myung-Tang (CMT) extract is widely used in Korea as a traditional herbal tonic for increasing memory capacity in high-school students and also for numerous body ailments since centuries. The use of CMT to improve the learning capacity has been attributed to various plant constituents, especially black ginseng, in it. Therefore, in this study, we have first investigated whether black ginseng-enriched CMT extracts affected spatial learning using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Their molecular mechanism of action underlying improvement of learning and memory was examined in vitro. Methods: We used two types of black ginseng-enriched CMT extracts, designated as CM-1 and CM-2, and evaluated their efficacy in the MWM test for spatial learning behavior and their anti-inflammatory effects in BV2 microglial cells. Results: Our results show that both black ginseng-enriched CMT extracts improved the learning behavior in scopolamine-induced impairment in the water maze test. Moreover, these extracts also inhibited nitric oxide production in BV2 cells, with significant suppression of expression of proinflammatory cytokines, especially inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and interleukin-1β. The protein expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB pathway factors was also diminished by black ginseng-enriched CMT extracts, indicating that it not only improves the memory impairment, but also acts a potent anti-inflammatory agent for neuroinflammatory diseases. Conclusion: Our research for the first time provides the scientific evidence that consumption of black ginseng-enriched CMT extract as a brain tonic improves memory impairment. Thus, our study results can be taken as a reference for future neurobehavioral studies. © 2016. Source

Saba E.,Kyungpook National University | Jeon B.R.,Kyungpook National University | Jeong D.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Lee K.,Kyungpook National University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2015

Background: Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Methods: Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. Results: We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects. © 2015. Source

Lee M.R.,Daedeok Bio Corporation Research and Development Center | Kim B.C.,Chungnam National University | Kim R.,Chungnam National University | Oh H.I.,Yonsei University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2013

Black ginseng is produced by a repeated steaming process. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of black ginseng ethanol extract (BG-EE) in high fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Two groups were fed either a normal control (NC) diet or a HF diet (45% kcal fat). The other three groups were given a HF diet supplemented with 1% BG-EE, 3% BG-EE, and 5% BG-EE for 12 wk. The anti-obesity effects of the BG-EE supplement on body weight, the development of fat mass, and lipid mechanisms were assessed in obese mice. HF-induced hyperlipidemia, fat accumulation in the liver, and white adipose tissues were reduced after BG-EE supplementation. Total fecal weight and the amount of fecal fat excretion also were increased after BG-EE supplementation. These results suggest that BG-EE may be useful to ameliorate HF-induced obesity through the strong inhibition of fat digestion. © The Korean Society of Ginseng. Source

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