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New Bern, NC, United States

Moeller D.W.,Dade Moeller and Associates Inc | Sun L.-S.C.,623 Congressional Lane and 203
Health Physics | Year: 2010

210Po and 210Pb were discovered in tobacco in 1964. This was followed by detailed assessments of the nature of their deposition, and accompanying dose rates to the lungs of cigarette smokers. Subsequent studies revealed: (1) the sources and pathways through which they gain access to tobacco; (2) the mechanisms through which they preferentially deposit in key segments of the bronchial epithelium; and (3) the fact that the accompanying alpha radiation plays a synergistic role in combination with the chemical carcinogens, to increase the fatal cancer risk coefficient in cigarette smokers by a factor of 8 to 25. Nonetheless, it was not until 2009 that Congress mandated that the Food and Drug Administration require that the cigarette industry reveal the presence of these carcinogens. In the meantime, cigarette smoking has become not only the number one source of cancer deaths in the United States, but also a major contributor to heart disease and other health impacts. If the latter effects are included, smoking is estimated to have caused an average of 443,000 deaths and 5.1 million years of potential life lost among the U.S. population each year from 2000 through 2004. The estimated associated collective dose is more than 36 times that to the workers at all the U.S. nuclear power plants, U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons facilities, and crews of all the vessels in the U.S. Nuclear Navy. This unnecessary source of lung cancer deaths demands the utmost attention of the radiation protection and public health professions. © 2010 Health Physics Society. Source

Harley N.,New York University | Chittaporn P.,New York University | Medora R.,Battelle | Merrill R.,Dade Moeller and Associates Inc
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2010

A miniature four-chamber alpha track detector was developed that measures both 222Rn (radon) and 220Rn (thoron), in duplicate. Using this detector and the previous long-term measurements of the 220Rn decay products 212Pb, and 212Bi, an equilibrium factor, Feq, is derived for both outdoor and indoor 220Rn environments (0.004+0.001 outdoors and 0.04+0.01 indoors). The lung airway dose can then be calculated from a dose factor from UNSCEAR that requires the equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration (EEC), i.e. the product of Feq and the 220Rn gas concentration. The lung dose from thoron in domestic or occupational surveys is often overlooked. The values of Feq for thoron in several published studies are in general agreement with the values reported here. Thus, a long-term alpha track measurement of thoron multiplied by an appropriate indoor or outdoor equilibrium factor yields the EEC, which can be used to assess bronchial lung dose. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Deubner D.C.,Materion Brush Inc. | Sabey P.,Materion Natural Resources Inc | Huang W.,University of Utah | Fernandez D.,University of Utah | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: Beryllium mine and ore extraction mill workers have low rates of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease relative to the level of beryllium exposure. The objective was to relate these rates to the solubility and composition of the mine and mill materials. METHOD: Medical surveillance and exposure data were summarized. Dissolution of BeO, ore materials and beryllium hydroxide, Be(OH)2 was measured in synthetic lung fluid. RESULT: The ore materials were more soluble than BeO at pH 7.2 and similar at pH 4.5. Be(OH)2 was more soluble than BeO at both pH. Aluminum dissolved along with beryllium from ore materials. Conclusion: Higher solubility of beryllium ore materials and Be(OH)2 at pH 7.2 might shorten particle longevity in the lung. The aluminum content of the ore materials might inhibit the cellular immune response to beryllium. Copyright © 2011 by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Source

Fellman A.,Dade Moeller and Associates Inc
Health Physics | Year: 2011

Imagine what it must be like to have a child with a condition that calls for treatment involving multiple interventional radiology procedures that result in upwards of one hour of fluoroscopy time and/or digital subtraction angiography to portions of the scalp and face. Depending on the operating parameters of the fluoroscopy device, the dose to the skin will range from approximately 0.02-0.04 Gy min-1. Therefore, under some circumstances, the 2 Gy threshold dose for temporary epilation is surpassed during one procedure. Now imagine the horror that both an underage patient and his or her parents experience when, two to three weeks after the procedure, significant clumps of hair fall from the child's head. It is inexcusable yet fairly common for interventional radiologists andother medical practitioners involved in these types of procedures to fail to take a few minutes to prepare patients and their families for this possibility. All health physicists working in medical facilities as well as other radiation safety professionals with access to physicians who use radiation-generating devices should be proactive in stressing to these physicians the importance of notifying their patients about acute radiation health effects when such effects are possible. Health Phys. 100(Supplement 1):S41-S42; 2011 © by the Health Physics Society. Source

Masterson E.A.,Dade Moeller and Associates Inc | Hopenhayn C.,University of Kentucky | Christian W.J.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Women's Health | Year: 2010

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between self-perceived mental health status and mammography screening in Kentucky. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, we examined survey data from the 2002 Kentucky Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged ≥40. Mental health status was measured by the reported number of days that mental health was not good; the number of days feeling sad, blue, or depressed; and the number of days feeling worried, tense, or anxious. The outcome was mammography within the last 2 years. Three logistic regression analyses were performed, one with each of the mental health status questions as the predictor variable. Analyses controlled for age, race, marital status, education, income, and health insurance status. Results: The numbers of poor mental health days, depressed days, and anxious days were found to be significant or near-significant predictors of recent mammography. Odds ratios (ORs) comparing women reporting 30 poor mental health days, depressed days, or anxious days with similar women reporting zero days were estimated to be 1.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.63), 1.49 (0.93-2.40), and 1.46 (0.96-2.23), respectively. Conclusions: Self-reported poor mental health, depression, and anxiety may be associated with nonreceipt of regular mammography screening. How mental health symptoms and self-reported poor mental health status contribute to decreased mammography screening should be explored. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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