Harley N.,New York University |
Chittaporn P.,New York University |
Medora R.,Battelle |
Merrill R.,Dade Moeller and Associates Inc
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2010
A miniature four-chamber alpha track detector was developed that measures both 222Rn (radon) and 220Rn (thoron), in duplicate. Using this detector and the previous long-term measurements of the 220Rn decay products 212Pb, and 212Bi, an equilibrium factor, Feq, is derived for both outdoor and indoor 220Rn environments (0.004+0.001 outdoors and 0.04+0.01 indoors). The lung airway dose can then be calculated from a dose factor from UNSCEAR that requires the equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration (EEC), i.e. the product of Feq and the 220Rn gas concentration. The lung dose from thoron in domestic or occupational surveys is often overlooked. The values of Feq for thoron in several published studies are in general agreement with the values reported here. Thus, a long-term alpha track measurement of thoron multiplied by an appropriate indoor or outdoor equilibrium factor yields the EEC, which can be used to assess bronchial lung dose. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Masterson E.A.,Dade Moeller and Associates Inc |
Hopenhayn C.,University of Kentucky |
Christian W.J.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Women's Health | Year: 2010
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between self-perceived mental health status and mammography screening in Kentucky. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, we examined survey data from the 2002 Kentucky Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged ≥40. Mental health status was measured by the reported number of days that mental health was not good; the number of days feeling sad, blue, or depressed; and the number of days feeling worried, tense, or anxious. The outcome was mammography within the last 2 years. Three logistic regression analyses were performed, one with each of the mental health status questions as the predictor variable. Analyses controlled for age, race, marital status, education, income, and health insurance status. Results: The numbers of poor mental health days, depressed days, and anxious days were found to be significant or near-significant predictors of recent mammography. Odds ratios (ORs) comparing women reporting 30 poor mental health days, depressed days, or anxious days with similar women reporting zero days were estimated to be 1.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.63), 1.49 (0.93-2.40), and 1.46 (0.96-2.23), respectively. Conclusions: Self-reported poor mental health, depression, and anxiety may be associated with nonreceipt of regular mammography screening. How mental health symptoms and self-reported poor mental health status contribute to decreased mammography screening should be explored. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Moeller D.W.,Dade Moeller and Associates Inc |
Sun L.-S.C.,623 Congressional Lane and 203
Health Physics | Year: 2010
210Po and 210Pb were discovered in tobacco in 1964. This was followed by detailed assessments of the nature of their deposition, and accompanying dose rates to the lungs of cigarette smokers. Subsequent studies revealed: (1) the sources and pathways through which they gain access to tobacco; (2) the mechanisms through which they preferentially deposit in key segments of the bronchial epithelium; and (3) the fact that the accompanying alpha radiation plays a synergistic role in combination with the chemical carcinogens, to increase the fatal cancer risk coefficient in cigarette smokers by a factor of 8 to 25. Nonetheless, it was not until 2009 that Congress mandated that the Food and Drug Administration require that the cigarette industry reveal the presence of these carcinogens. In the meantime, cigarette smoking has become not only the number one source of cancer deaths in the United States, but also a major contributor to heart disease and other health impacts. If the latter effects are included, smoking is estimated to have caused an average of 443,000 deaths and 5.1 million years of potential life lost among the U.S. population each year from 2000 through 2004. The estimated associated collective dose is more than 36 times that to the workers at all the U.S. nuclear power plants, U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons facilities, and crews of all the vessels in the U.S. Nuclear Navy. This unnecessary source of lung cancer deaths demands the utmost attention of the radiation protection and public health professions. © 2010 Health Physics Society.
Taulbee T.D.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health |
Glover S.E.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health |
Macievic G.V.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health |
Hunacek M.,Dade Moeller and Associates Inc |
And 4 more authors.
Health Physics | Year: 2010
Neutron and photon radiation survey records have been used to evaluate and develop a neutron to photon (NP) ratio to reconstruct neutron doses to workers around Hanford's single pass reactors that operated from 1945 to 1972. A total of 5,773 paired neutron and photon measurements extracted from 57 boxes of survey records were used in the development of the NP ratio. The development of the NP ratio enables the use of the recorded dose from an individual's photon dosimeter badge to be used to estimate the unmonitored neutron dose. The Pearson rank correlation between the neutron and photon measurements was 0.71. The NP ratio best fit a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.8, a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.95, and the upper 95th% of this distribution was 4.75. An estimate of the neutron dose based on this NP ratio is considered bounding due to evidence that up to 70% of the total photon exposure received by workers around the single pass reactors occurs during shutdown maintenance and refueling activities when there is no significant neutron exposure. Thus when this NP ratio is applied to the total measured photon dose from an individual film badge dosimeter, the resulting neutron dose is considered bounded. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society.
Deubner D.C.,Materion Brush Inc |
Sabey P.,Materion Natural Resources Inc |
Huang W.,University of Utah |
Fernandez D.,University of Utah |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011
Objective: Beryllium mine and ore extraction mill workers have low rates of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease relative to the level of beryllium exposure. The objective was to relate these rates to the solubility and composition of the mine and mill materials. METHOD: Medical surveillance and exposure data were summarized. Dissolution of BeO, ore materials and beryllium hydroxide, Be(OH)2 was measured in synthetic lung fluid. RESULT: The ore materials were more soluble than BeO at pH 7.2 and similar at pH 4.5. Be(OH)2 was more soluble than BeO at both pH. Aluminum dissolved along with beryllium from ore materials. Conclusion: Higher solubility of beryllium ore materials and Be(OH)2 at pH 7.2 might shorten particle longevity in the lung. The aluminum content of the ore materials might inhibit the cellular immune response to beryllium. Copyright © 2011 by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Fellman A.,Dade Moeller and Associates Inc
Health Physics | Year: 2011
Imagine what it must be like to have a child with a condition that calls for treatment involving multiple interventional radiology procedures that result in upwards of one hour of fluoroscopy time and/or digital subtraction angiography to portions of the scalp and face. Depending on the operating parameters of the fluoroscopy device, the dose to the skin will range from approximately 0.02-0.04 Gy min-1. Therefore, under some circumstances, the 2 Gy threshold dose for temporary epilation is surpassed during one procedure. Now imagine the horror that both an underage patient and his or her parents experience when, two to three weeks after the procedure, significant clumps of hair fall from the child's head. It is inexcusable yet fairly common for interventional radiologists andother medical practitioners involved in these types of procedures to fail to take a few minutes to prepare patients and their families for this possibility. All health physicists working in medical facilities as well as other radiation safety professionals with access to physicians who use radiation-generating devices should be proactive in stressing to these physicians the importance of notifying their patients about acute radiation health effects when such effects are possible. Health Phys. 100(Supplement 1):S41-S42; 2011 © by the Health Physics Society.
Robbins C.A.,Veritox Inc. |
Krause M.W.,Veritox Inc. |
Atallah R.H.,Veritox Inc. |
Atallah R.H.,Dade Moeller and Associates Inc |
Plisko M.J.,Environmental Profiles Inc.
Journal of Chemical Health and Safety | Year: 2012
It has been reported that the presence of ≤0.1% benzene in base solvents often used for cleaning is likely to result in exposure concentrations above the current OSHA PEL. This prediction was based upon calculations that depend largely on the concentration of benzene assumed to be present in a solvent mixture. Measurements of exposure during work simulations and more comprehensive modeling studies show that many factors other than the benzene content of the bulk solvent influence personal and area vapor concentrations. This study examines benzene exposure due to trace amounts of benzene in solvents available recently, and whether exposure in excess of the OSHA benzene standard occurs when 10 and 50. mL of base solvents containing up to 0.1% benzene are used during a manual cleaning process in a poorly ventilated room.Breathing zone (BZ) concentrations were measured for benzene, toluene and xylene during repetitions of a cleaning procedure using a small cloth to wipe a metal paint tray with 10 and 50. mL of consumer-grade toluene and xylene alone and toluene spiked with 0.1% benzene. Air samples were collected in the breathing zone (BZ) for 15. min to determine the short-term exposure. Separate 2. hr samples were collected in the BZ and general area to obtain time-weighted average (TWA) exposure concentrations. All samples were analyzed with a GC-FID utilizing NIOSH Method 1501.A near field-far field (NF-FF) model was used in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation to predict airborne benzene, toluene, and xylene concentrations and to quantify uncertainty in the input parameters of the model. Variables including solvent evaporation time and air movement around the worker during the work activity were analyzed over a range of possible values. The result after 10 5 iterations of Monte Carlo simulation was a range of possible outcomes and the likelihood that each would occur; these outcomes are compared to the measured airborne concentrations.Cleaning the metal pan with 10-50. mL of toluene or xylene with or without 0.1% benzene did not result in benzene exposures in excess of either the OSHA PEL 8-hr TWA (1.0. ppm) or action level (0.5. ppm). The ratio of predicted or modeled to measured benzene concentration ranged from 0.42 to 2.1. The ratio of predicted or modeled to measured xylene and toluene concentration ranged from 0.92 to 3.7. Application of the NF-FF model under the conditions studied indicates a reasonable degree of reliability in forecasting airborne solvent concentrations under the conditions studied. © 2012 Division of Chemical Health and Safety of the American Chemical Society.