PubMed | University of Manchester and a DABMEB Consultancy Ltd
Type: | Journal: Journal of immunotoxicology | Year: 2016
Although a substantial number of chemicals has the ability to bind covalently to proteins and thereby, given sufficient exposure, induce a state of sensitization, only a small minority appear to be able to cause allergic hypersensitivity of the respiratory tract; the great majority being exclusively skin sensitizers. The key mechanistic drivers for the differentiation between skin and respiratory sensitization are already well characterized at the cellular/cytokine level. However, at both the chemical level and in terms of predictive toxicology, matters are much less clear. In the present article, phthalic anhydride is used as an exemplar, since it displays a particularly differentiated profile as a chemical allergen. Whereas most respiratory sensitizers are known also to give rise to delayed skin reactions, evidence for phthalic anhydride suggests that it only causes immediate type allergy. Chemically, phthalic anhydride can be presumed to react similar to other respiratory sensitizing anhydrides; in predictive tests for skin sensitization, phthalic anhydride is clearly positive, a property it has in common with all other chemical respiratory allergens. Thus, in the context of interpreting predictive toxicology tests for skin sensitization, the inference is that negative results demonstrate an absence of both skin- and respiratory-sensitizing capacity.
PubMed | a DABMEB Consultancy Ltd.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene | Year: 2015
Enzyme proteins have potential to cause occupational allergy/asthma. Consequently, as users of enzymes in formulated products, detergents manufacturers have implemented a number of control measures to ensure that the hazard does not translate into health effects in the workforce. To that end, trade associations have developed best practice guidelines which emphasize occupational hygiene and medical monitoring as part of an effective risk management strategy. The need for businesses to recognize the utility of this guidance is reinforced by reports where factories which have failed to follow good industrial hygiene practices have given rise to incidences of occupational allergy. In this article, an overview is provided of how the industry guidelines are actually implemented in practice and what experience is to be derived therefrom. Both medical surveillance and air monitoring practices associated with the implementation of industry guidelines at approximately 100 manufacturing facilities are examined. The data show that by using the approaches described for the limitation of exposure, for the provision of good occupational hygiene and for the active monitoring of health, the respiratory allergenic risk associated with enzyme proteins can be successfully managed. This therefore represents an approach that could be recommended to other industries contemplating working with enzymes.