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Veena D.K.,Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering | Jatti A.,Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering | Sabah M.P.,Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering | Joshi R.,Da Pandu Memorial Rv Dental College And Hospital
2016 International Conference on Computation System and Information Technology for Sustainable Solutions, CSITSS 2016 | Year: 2016

Cysts and tumors of maxillofacial region are a major issue of concern for health care providers. Management of these lesions is predominantly bogged by recurrence. Accurate diagnosis of the lesions in early stages has a positive effect on both management and prognosis of the disease. Cystic lesions if not treated early may lead to tumors. Cysts affecting jawbone can be detected by radiographic examination using panoramic radiographs/ orthopantomograms (OPG). This paper presents Histogram based preprocessing techniques for OPG images to visualize cystic region and consequently estimating the shape and image parameters using ImageJ. The shape parameters described for the cystic region are area, perimeter, circularity, solidity and roundness. The image parameters such as mean and modal gray value of intensities, standard deviation minimum and maximum pixel intensities, aspect ratio for cystic region has been evaluated using ImageJ. © 2016 IEEE.


Divya K.V.,Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering | Jatti A.,Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering | Meharaj P.S.,Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering | Joshi R.,Da Pandu Memorial Rv Dental College And Hospital
IECBES 2016 - IEEE-EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences | Year: 2016

Jawbone cysts of maxillofacial region are a major issue of concern for health care providers. Management of these lesions is predominantly bogged by recurrence. Cystic lesions if not treated early may lead to the formation of tumors. Cysts affecting jawbone can be detected by radiographic examination using orthopantomograms (OPG) commonly referred as panoramic dental x-rays. Orthopantomograms are turned to be cost effective and most preliminary step taken for scanning any dental anomalies. The dental panoramic images obtained with orthopantomograms are degraded by noise and poor visualization. An efficient computer aided diagnosis is much essential for segmentation of cysts/lesions from the panoramic images for its early detection. Segmentation of cyst/ lesion plays a crucial part in the diagnosis as most of the times cystic region is not defined by a proper boundary. Oftenly, the radiologist is supposed to mark manually to extract the region of cysts. Hence in this paper, a segmentation algorithm based on active contour model (ACM) is proposed for segmentation of cystic lesion and extracting the area of cysts to study the behavior of cyst formation. This could assist radiologist/dentist in diagnosis and treatment planning of the jawbone cysts. © 2016 IEEE.


Sikander M.H.,MR Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital | Mankar S.,DA Pandu Memorial RV Dental College and Hospital | Amrin M.N.,Government Dental College
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2015

Odontogenic tumors (OTs) include entities of a hamartomatous nature, such as odontoma, benign neoplasms like an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), some benign neoplasms are aggressive as in the case of ameloblastoma. The AOT is a rare odontogenic tumor constituting only 3% of all the OT and very often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. We report a case of an intra-osseous type of AOT occurred in a young 16-year-old female located in the anterior maxilla along with the clinical, radiological, histological features, and literature review related to the tumor affecting the patient. © 2015 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.


PubMed | MR Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital, DA Pandu Memorial RV Dental College and Hospital and Government Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences | Year: 2015

Odontogenic tumors (OTs) include entities of a hamartomatous nature, such as odontoma, benign neoplasms like an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), some benign neoplasms are aggressive as in the case of ameloblastoma. The AOT is a rare odontogenic tumor constituting only 3% of all the OT and very often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. We report a case of an intra-osseous type of AOT occurred in a young 16-year-old female located in the anterior maxilla along with the clinical, radiological, histological features, and literature review related to the tumor affecting the patient.


Khan I.,Indian Institute of Science | Pant I.,Indian Institute of Science | Narra S.,Indian Institute of Science | Radhesh R.,Clumax Diagnostics | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

Exposure of oral cavity to areca nut is associated with several pathological conditions including oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Histopathologically OSF is characterized by epithelial atrophy, chronic inflammation, juxtaepithelial hyalinization, leading to fibrosis of submucosal tissue and affects 0.5% of the population in the Indian subcontinent. As the molecular mechanisms leading to atrophied epithelium and fibrosis are poorly understood, we studied areca nut actions on human keratinocyte and gingival fibroblast cells. Areca nut water extract (ANW) was cytotoxic to epithelial cells and had a pro-proliferative effect on fibroblasts. This opposite effect of ANW on epithelial and fibroblast cells was intriguing but reflects the OSF histopathology such as epithelial atrophy and proliferation of fibroblasts. We demonstrate that the pro-proliferative effects of ANW on fibroblasts are dependent on insulin-like growth factor signalling while the cytotoxic effects on keratinocytes are dependent on the generation of reactive oxygen species. Treatment of keratinocytes with arecoline which is a component of ANW along with copper resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity which becomes comparable to IC50 of ANW. Furthermore, studies using cyclic voltammetry, mass spectrometry and plasmid cleavage assay suggested that the presence of arecoline increases oxidation reduction potential of copper leading to enhanced cleavage of DNA which could generate an apoptotic response. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling assay and Ki-67 index of OSF tissue sections suggested epithelial apoptosis, which could be responsible for the atrophy of OSF epithelium. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.


PubMed | Da Pandu Memorial Rv Dental College And Hospital, Clumax Diagnostics, Indian Institute of Science and Ragas Dental College and Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of cellular and molecular medicine | Year: 2015

Exposure of oral cavity to areca nut is associated with several pathological conditions including oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Histopathologically OSF is characterized by epithelial atrophy, chronic inflammation, juxtaepithelial hyalinization, leading to fibrosis of submucosal tissue and affects 0.5% of the population in the Indian subcontinent. As the molecular mechanisms leading to atrophied epithelium and fibrosis are poorly understood, we studied areca nut actions on human keratinocyte and gingival fibroblast cells. Areca nut water extract (ANW) was cytotoxic to epithelial cells and had a pro-proliferative effect on fibroblasts. This opposite effect of ANW on epithelial and fibroblast cells was intriguing but reflects the OSF histopathology such as epithelial atrophy and proliferation of fibroblasts. We demonstrate that the pro-proliferative effects of ANW on fibroblasts are dependent on insulin-like growth factor signalling while the cytotoxic effects on keratinocytes are dependent on the generation of reactive oxygen species. Treatment of keratinocytes with arecoline which is a component of ANW along with copper resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity which becomes comparable to IC(50) of ANW. Furthermore, studies using cyclic voltammetry, mass spectrometry and plasmid cleavage assay suggested that the presence of arecoline increases oxidation reduction potential of copper leading to enhanced cleavage of DNA which could generate an apoptotic response. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling assay and Ki-67 index of OSF tissue sections suggested epithelial apoptosis, which could be responsible for the atrophy of OSF epithelium.


Pant I.,Indian Institute of Science | Kumar N.,Indian Institute of Science | Khan I.,Indian Institute of Science | Rao S.G.,Da Pandu Memorial Rv Dental College And Hospital | Kondaiah P.,Indian Institute of Science
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Areca nut consumption has been implicated in the progression of Oral Submucous fibrosis (OSF); an inflammatory precancerous fibrotic condition. Our previous studies have demonstrated the activation of TGF-β signaling in epithelial cells by areca nut components and also propose a role for epithelial expressed TGF-β in the pathogenesis of OSF. Although the importance of epithelial cells in the manifestation of OSF has been proposed, the actual effectors are fibroblast cells. However, the role of areca nut and TGF-β in the context of fibroblast response has not been elucidated. Therefore, to understand their role in the context of fibroblast response in OSF pathogenesis, human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) were treated with areca nut and/or TGF-β followed by transcriptome profiling. The gene expression profile obtained was compared with the previously published transcriptome profiles of OSF tissues and areca nut treated epithelial cells. The analysis revealed regulation of 4666 and 1214 genes by areca nut and TGF-β treatment respectively. The expression of 413 genes in hGF cells was potentiated by areca nut and TGF-β together. Further, the differentially expressed genes of OSF tissues compared to normal tissues overlapped significantly with areca nut and TGF-β induced genes in epithelial and hGF cells. Several positively enriched pathways were found to be common between OSF tissues and areca nut +TGF-β treated hGF cells. In concordance, areca nut along with TGF-β enhanced fibroblast activation as demonstrated by potentiation of aSMA, γSMA and collagen gel contraction by hGF cells. Furthermore, TGF-β secreted by areca nut treated epithelial cells influenced fibroblast activation and other genes implicated in fibrosis. These data establish a role for areca nut influenced epithelial cells in OSF progression by activation of fibroblasts and emphasizes the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction in OSF. Copyright © 2015 Pant et al.


Sapna N.,Da Pandu Memorial Rv Dental College And Hospital | Vandana K.L.,Da Pandu Memorial Rv Dental College And Hospital
Journal of investigative and clinical dentistry | Year: 2011

AIM:   To clinically and histopathologically evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of 0.2% hyaluronan gel alone and with mechanical therapy on gingivitis. The argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region staining technique was attempted to routinely determine its diagnostic and prognostic dependability for periodontal lesions.METHODS:   In each of the 28 gingivitis patients, the four quadrants were subjected to different treatments: scaling, scaling + topical hyaluronan gel, only topical hyaluronan gel, and topical + intrasulcular hyaluronan gel. Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, and on days 7, 14, and 21. Biopsies were taken from each quadrant, inflammatory infiltrates were graded, and the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count was measured before and after treatment.RESULTS:   A significant reduction was seen in clinical parameters, inflammatory infiltrates, and the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count within the groups. The effect of topical + intrasulcular gel was equivalent to scaling (P > 0.05). Topical + intrasulcular hyaluronan gel application demonstrated a better reduction than topical hyaluronan gel alone.CONCLUSIONS:   Hyaluronan gel is an effective topical agent for treating gingivitis, along with scaling and intrasulcular application. The argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count can be used as a histopathological indicator in cases of non-responsive gingivitis to assess the severity of gingival inflammation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


PubMed | Da Pandu Memorial Rv Dental College And Hospital and Indian Institute of Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Areca nut consumption has been implicated in the progression of Oral Submucous fibrosis (OSF); an inflammatory precancerous fibrotic condition. Our previous studies have demonstrated the activation of TGF- signaling in epithelial cells by areca nut components and also propose a role for epithelial expressed TGF- in the pathogenesis of OSF. Although the importance of epithelial cells in the manifestation of OSF has been proposed, the actual effectors are fibroblast cells. However, the role of areca nut and TGF- in the context of fibroblast response has not been elucidated. Therefore, to understand their role in the context of fibroblast response in OSF pathogenesis, human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) were treated with areca nut and/or TGF- followed by transcriptome profiling. The gene expression profile obtained was compared with the previously published transcriptome profiles of OSF tissues and areca nut treated epithelial cells. The analysis revealed regulation of 4666 and 1214 genes by areca nut and TGF- treatment respectively. The expression of 413 genes in hGF cells was potentiated by areca nut and TGF- together. Further, the differentially expressed genes of OSF tissues compared to normal tissues overlapped significantly with areca nut and TGF- induced genes in epithelial and hGF cells. Several positively enriched pathways were found to be common between OSF tissues and areca nut +TGF- treated hGF cells. In concordance, areca nut along with TGF- enhanced fibroblast activation as demonstrated by potentiation of SMA, SMA and collagen gel contraction by hGF cells. Furthermore, TGF- secreted by areca nut treated epithelial cells influenced fibroblast activation and other genes implicated in fibrosis. These data establish a role for areca nut influenced epithelial cells in OSF progression by activation of fibroblasts and emphasizes the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction in OSF.


PubMed | DA Pandu Memorial RV Dental College and Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research | Year: 2012

Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is an umbrella term for a collection of disorders affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated tissues. TMD is not a rare pathology for the dentist. The most common presenting symptom is pain, which causes the patient seek immediate treatment. Management is dictated by the cause. The most famed causes include trauma, inflammation, aging, parafunctional habits, infections, neoplasms, and stress; and these are always considered in the differential diagnosis of TMJ pain. There are some less famed causes of TMD, which are characterized by increased pain sensitivity due to psychosocial factors; these include myofascial pain syndrome and functional somatic syndromes (FSS) such as fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. They present with chronic pain, fatigue, disability, and impairment in ability to perform daily activities. A non-systematic search in the English literature revealed numerous studies describing the occurrence of TMD in these conditions, along with few other oral manifestations. TMD has been even considered to be a part of the FSS by some. In these patients, TMD remains a recurring problem, and adequate management cannot be achieved by traditional treatment protocols. Awareness of these conditions, with correct diagnosis and modification of management protocols accordingly, may resolve this problem.

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