Heslington, United Kingdom
Heslington, United Kingdom

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Negussie A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Negussie A.,World Agroforestry Center | Achten W.M.J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Achten W.M.J.,Roosevelt University | And 6 more authors.
Bioenergy Research | Year: 2015

The high oil content and suitable fatty acid composition of the seeds are two arguments to promote Jatropha curcas L. as a promising biodiesel crop. For seed yielding crops as J. curcas, it can be expected that successful pollination is a key process affecting oil yield and oil quality. Field experiments were conducted in Zambia to study the effects of different pollination treatments (autonomous autogamy, open natural, open pollen supplemented, self, and cross-pollination) on seed morphology, seed oil content (g), seed oil concentration (%), and oil fatty acid composition of J. curcas in 2- and 5-year-old plantations. For this experiment, 100 inflorescences per plantation were selected. Autonomous autogamy and self-pollination treatments reduced oil yield with 70 and 29 % respectively, compared to open pollination. Cross- and self-pollinations resulted in longer seeds than open pollination but did not affect oil content and concentration. The oil has high unsaturated fatty acid content (80 %) and is composed of nine fatty acids. Pollination treatments had an effect on fatty acid composition of oil from mature trees (5 years old), but had not for 2-year-old trees. The oleic acid content, a determinant fatty acid component for quality biodiesel production was lower for artificial self-pollination (9 % reduction) compared to open pollination. This research demonstrates that overall oil yield and quality are the highest under natural pollination. This shows the importance of safeguarding the quality and effectiveness of open natural pollination. This can be done by enhancing the presence of insects identified as J. curcas pollinators, particularly those pollinators enhancing cross-pollination. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Stringer L.C.,University of Leeds | Dougill A.J.,University of Leeds | Thomas A.D.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Spracklen D.V.,University of Leeds | And 17 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2012

Changes in land use and management practices to store and sequester carbon are becoming integral to global efforts that both address climate change and alleviate poverty. Knowledge and evidence gaps nevertheless abound. This paper analyses the most pressing deficiencies in understanding carbon storage in both soils and above ground biomass and the related social and economic challenges associated with carbon sequestration projects. Focusing on the semi-arid and dry sub-humid systems of sub-Saharan Africa which are inhabited by many of the world's poor, we identify important interdisciplinary opportunities and challenges that need to be addressed, in order for the poor to benefit from carbon storage, through both climate finance streams and the collateral ecosystem service benefits delivered by carbon-friendly land management. We emphasise that multi-stakeholder working across scales from the local to the regional is necessary to ensure that scientific advances can inform policy and practice to deliver carbon, ecosystem service and poverty alleviation benefits. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Pirgozliev V.,Avian Science Research Center | Pirgozliev V.,Harper Adams University College | Jesson C.,D1 Oils plc | Brooker J.,D1 Oils plc | Rose S.P.,Harper Adams University College
Archiv fur Geflugelkunde | Year: 2013

A precision feeding experiment was conducted with broiler chickens to study the differences between detoxified Jat-ropha curcas kernel meal (JKM) and a sample of soy bean meal (SBM) in regard to true metabolisable energy (TME), true dry matter metabolisability (TDM), true nitrogen metab-olisability (TNM) and true mineral metabolisability coefficients. Compared to SBM, JKM had a higher content of nitrogen (N) (116 vs 87 g/kg DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) (281 vs 78 g/kg DM), phytate P (PP) (13.2 vs 4.8 g/kg DM) and most of the major minerals (except K). When expressed as a proportion of the crude protein, the concentrations of lysine and threonine in SBM protein were 42.1% and 13%, respectively, higher than the JKM protein, although the methionine content was 11.6% higher in JKM. SBM had a higher fat content (19.1 vs 1.2 g/kg DM), a higher gross energy (GE) (20.6 vs 19.3 MJ/kgDM) and higher TME content (P < 0.001) (14.2 vs 12.3 MJ/kg DM) than the JKM. The availability of the calcium, phosphorus and sulphur in JKM was lower (p < 0.05) than in the SBM. The experiment indicates that detoxified JKM could be considered as a protein concentrate for poultry feed. However, information on amino acid digestibility and further ad libitum feeding studies are required to determine the effect of this JKM on the growth performance of birds. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

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