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Napoli, Italy

Vatrella A.,University of Naples Federico II | Montagnani S.,University of Naples Federico II | Calabrese C.,The Second University of Naples | Parrella R.,Cotugno Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents | Year: 2010

Neurogenic mechanisms seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as suggested by a number of in vitro data. However, few studies have investigated the presence of neuropeptides in the airways of patients with COPD, and they have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to compare the expression of the neuropeptide substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the airways of smokers with and without COPD. Surgical lung samples were obtained from 15 smokers with COPD and 16 smokers with normal lung function, who underwent lobectomy for a solitary lung carcinoma. Airway expression and distribution of SP, VIP, and NPY were identified by immunohistochemistry and analyzed by a computerized image analysis system. Compared to smokers with normal lung function, COPD patients exhibited an increased immunoreactivity for SP and VIP, paralleled by a decreased NPY expression in the epithelium and glands, and a decreased expression of all these three neuropeptides in the smooth muscle layer. Therefore, in the present study we have documented a different expression and distribution of the neuropeptides SP, VIP, and NPY in the airways of smokers with and without COPD. These findings suggest a possible involvement of such neuropeptides in the pathogenesis of some changes occurring in COPD. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s.

Dellegrottaglie S.,Ospedale Medico Chirurgico Accreditato Villa dei Fiori | Dellegrottaglie S.,d Ma Wiener Cardiovascular Institute And d Hr Kravis Center For Cardiovascular Health | Russo G.,Ospedale Medico Chirurgico Accreditato Villa dei Fiori | Damiano M.,Ospedale Medico Chirurgico Accreditato Villa dei Fiori | And 4 more authors.
Infection | Year: 2014

We report the case of a 32-year-old male with Chlamydia trachomatis infection and admitted with chest pain, signs of myocardial damage and coronary arteries free from significant atherosclerotic disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) documented imaging patterns of myocardial involvement suggestive of acute myocarditis, and repeated cardiac MRI examinations were used to define appropriate clinical management of the patient. In particular, the decision to submit the patient to an additional antibiotic course was based on evidence of persisting myocardial edema, while no further treatments were prescribed once these imaging findings disappeared. The case emphasizes the potential value of cardiac MRI as the only non-invasive modality currently available for evaluating the temporal evolution of myocardial involvement after acute myocarditis. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Amoroso P.,Cotugno Hospital | Taliani G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Chiriaco P.,Infectious Diseases Unit | Maio P.,Infectious Diseases Unit | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs12979860) near the IL28B gene has been associated with spontaneous and treatment-induced hepatitis C virus clearance. We investigated predictors of spontaneous disease resolution in a cohort of patients with acute hepatitis C (AHC), analyzing epidemiological, clinical and virological parameters together with IL28B.rs12979860 genotypes and cell-mediated immunity (CMI).Methods. Fifty-six symptomatic AHC patients were enrolled and followed prospectively. CMI was measured in 31 patients at multiple time points by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay and was correlated to the IL28B.rs12979860 SNP.Results. Eighteen patients had a self-limiting AHC that was associated with female sex (P =. 028), older age (P =. 018), alanine aminotransferase level >1000 U/L (P =. 027), total bilirubin level >7 mg/dL (P =. 036), and IL28B.rs12979860 genotype CC (P =. 030). In multivariate analysis, only CC genotype was independently associated with self-limiting AHC (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-26.5). Patients with the CC genotype with self-limiting AHC had a stronger (P =. 02) and broader (P =. 013) CMI than patients with the CT genotype with chronically evolving AHC. In patients with chronically evolving disease, CC genotype was associated with a broader CMI compared to CT genotype (P =. 028). A negative CMI was more frequently associated with CT genotype among persistently infected patients (P =. 043) and with persistent infection among CT patients (P =. 033).Conclusions. Self-limiting AHC was independently associated with CC genotype. The correlation between IL28B.rs12979860 genotypes and CMI is suggestive of a possible important role of CMI in favoring hepatitis C virus clearance in CC patients. © 2013 The Author.

Vatrella A.,University of Naples Federico II | Perna F.,University of Naples Federico II | Pelaia G.,University of Catanzaro | Parrella R.,Cotugno Hospital | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway infiltration with eosinophils and T lymphocytes are key features of asthma. In particular, CD4+ T cells are currently believed to play a pivotal role as initiators and coordinators of the asthmatic inflammatory response and, therefore, they represent a crucial target of corticosteroid treatment. The aim of the present investigation is thus to evaluate, in patients with mild asthma, the effects of inhaled corticosteroid therapy on the following parameters: (i) functional state of CD4+ T cells; (ii) airway eosinophilia; (iii) bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. The study was completed by twenty asthmatic, atopic subjects, subdivided into two groups of ten and treated for 12 weeks with either inhaled budesonide (200 μg twice daily) or terbutaline alone (500 μg twice daily), respectively. Expression of CD4+ T cell activation markers was measured in induced sputum at baseline and after 1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment by flow cytometry, which showed a down-regulation of HLA-DR and CD25 surface proteins in the budesonide group, compared with the control group; these differences resulted as being statistically significant through weeks 4-12. Budesonide also induced a quick, sharp reduction in the percentage of eosinophils detectable in induced sputum, as well as a more gradual progressive improvement in airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Therefore, in addition to assessing various indices of bronchial inflammation, flow cytometry can be reliably applied to induced sputum in order to monitor, even in mildly symptomatic patients, the effects of anti-asthma treatments on T cell activation. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s.

Berretta M.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Lleshi A.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Cappellani A.,University of Catania | Bearz A.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 16 more authors.
Current HIV Research | Year: 2010

Background: Although FOLFOX4 is considered the standard chemotherapy regimen for colorectal cancer (CRC), few data are available on its results in human immunodeficiency (HIV)-related CRC. The results were analyzed to evaluate feasibility and activity of FOLFOX4 plus highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in metastatic CRC (mCRC) HIV-seropositive patients. Patients and Methods: From January 2002 to March 2007, 24 patients were selected among the CRC HIV-seropositive patients treated with FOLFOX4 and concomitant HAART within the Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS and Tumors (GICAT). Results: Four median cycles of chemotherapy were administered; the most common severe toxicity was neutropenia (37.5%). An overall response rate of 50% was observed; 4.2% of patients achieved complete response and 45.8% partial response. No opportunistic infections occurred during or immediately after chemotherapy. The median CD4+ count was 380 (range 220-570) at diagnosis. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the largest study describing activity and tolerability of FOLFOX4 and HAART, in this setting. FOLFOX4 plus concomitant HAART resulted feasible and active also in HIV-seropositive patients. Moreover, the concomitant use of HAART did not seem to increase the FOLFOX4 toxicity. This study suggests the good tolerability of the FOLFOX4, making it a reasonable option for combination with HAART. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

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